Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Compare and contrast Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories of cognitive development in children Essay

This essay will compare Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories of cognitive development in children. Also, show the differences between the two psychologist’s theories. Thus, by showing their similarities like in language and adaptation theories. Further, differences like Piaget’s theory on cognitive developmental stages and the schemas which are build to learn or accommodate new words or things. Vygostky’s theory differs to Piaget’s theory by his socio-cultural and language theories. Finally, bring all this points together by drawing a conclusion. Cognitive development is defined as the growth of mental faculties from birth to adult age. This is continually process as the children go about life they learn skills, language to further their cognitive development. Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky were both interested in this field and they findings have influenced and impacted the children learn and education in better way. According to Piaget children c ognitive development is universal a process which the child goes through once and this process is divided into four different stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations and formal operations (Gross, 2004). Sensorimotor stage beginnings between the birth until two years of age. At this stage Piaget suggested that children distinguished themselves from objects. Also, they experience their environment through their senses (Gross, 2004). Further, children start to take initiative and be able to reflex like kicking playing or grasping things. In addition, children start to realise that even when the object is not visible but still exist, which is called object permanence (Beck, 2000). The second stage Piaget called it as preoperational a stage between the ages of two and seven years old. In preoperational stage children are able to use language to name objects animals and group things into groups. But their abilities of thinking at this stage still egocentric because hardily they can take the view point of others (Beck, 2000). Also, Piaget divided this stage into two; the pre-conceptual and the intuitive. First, children in preconceptual cannot differentiate colour or size at the same time a process which Piaget called centration. In contrast, Vygotsky named it as complexive  thinking meaning that when one is grouping things or events accord ing to their common features like shape or colour (Gross, 2004). The pre-conceptual stage is between the ages of two to four years. Further, children at this sub stage cannot recognise order or sequences (Gross, 2004). Second, intuitive stage takes place between the ages of four to seven years. In this stage Piaget believed that children cannot understand conservation that still the same when they change their form (Gross, 2004). The third stage is the concrete operational stage which Piaget believed that children at ages of seven to eleven they develop metal abilities of thinking logically (Carlson, 2010). Further, children at this stage understand compensation, reversibility and identity (Beck, 2000). The fourth and finally Piaget stage is the formal operational at this stage the children have ability to think abstract and logically (Gross, 2004). Thus, in this stage young people go through different changes in their development meaning that they are aware of their decisions making and taking other peoples opinions. According to Piaget this stage is between the ages of eleven until the adolescent (Gross, 2004). Thus, another different between Piaget’s theory and Vygotsky’s theory is the Piaget schemas theory. According to Piaget schemas are divided into three points the assimilation, accommodation and equilibration (Gross, 2010). Actually, schemas are defined as mental and physical aspect of understanding better children during their life span (Beck, 2004). Assimilation is process when a child adds new information into the ones which are known to her or to him (Gross, 2010). Instead, accommodation inquires adapting and be aware of new and old information. The last one is the equilibration which Piaget believed that a child at this point has the abilities to balance information back and forth in order to practise and get the information restored. And the child does it by accommodation and assimilation (Carlson, 2010). In other hand, Vygotsky suggest that language is the fundamental basis for the children cognitive development (Gross, 2010). Also, language is one the factors that influence children to use inner speech when learning new objects or words (Gross, 2010). But there is problem with this theory because other psychologists do not support this theory. Instead, Piaget argued and suggested that children at that stage are egocentric and have some form vocabulary limitation. Further, this might explain the children self talk (Gross, 2010). In another  Process which Vygotsky explained was the Zone of Proximal development which the child learn skills with help of adults to expand their knowledge (Carlson, 2010). Further, Vygotsky also suggested that by children interacting with their family members helps them to become better verbally (Beck, 2004). Furthermore, Vygotsky come with theory of scaffolding which is explained that parents or adults should support their children y solving problem step by step without causing them frustration. By doing that when children show some form of improvement of master those skills, parents should then leave the children by themselves (Carlson, 2010). But Piaget contradicts this theory by suggesting that children at this they cannot think properly (Gross, 2010). Vygotsky’s suggested that there are three processes which parents pass their knowledge through their children; imitative learning, instructed learning and collaborative learning (Beck, 2004). Imitative is when children do or copy what their role models do. Further, the instructed learning is when the child does what he or she was told by adults or puts it into practice. Another point is the collaborative learning when a group of children work together to learn or to achieve a goal (Gross, 2010). Contrary to Piaget’s theory, was the socio- cultural theory which Vygotsky suggested that, the environment in which the child grows plays an important role in cognitive development of the child. In addition, Vygotsky went on by suggest that children learn from important people in their life, like parents, teachers and friends or family members which are as role model in their point of view (Gross, 2010). This contradict Piaget’s cognitive development stages theory which he believed to be universal, and what the child goes through or what she or he learns at every age is the same everywhere in world and for every child (Beck, 2004). Looking at how Piaget and Vygotsky went about to explain their theories one can found contrast and similarities. Vygotsky focused in importance of language and how they went on learning how to resolve problems. In addition, Vygotsky’s theories lacked enough evidences to support them and for this reason they were not tested (Beck, 2004). Meanwhile, Piaget observed his own children when playing to support his theories (Gross, 2010). Further, Piaget had less interest on the social development theory. But Vygotsky focused on the social part of the cognitive development (Gross, 2010). Overall, there are differences between the Piaget’s theories and Vygotsky’s theories but in  some point there were similarities. For instance, Vygotsky focused mainly in socio- cultural suggesting that where the child grows has vital role on his cognitive development. Whereas, Piaget’s theory were more related to schemas and stages of cognitive development which Piaget suggested that they were universal. But both agreed that language is important and that teacher were important for child’s cognitive development. In brave, Piaget’s theory and Vygotsky’s theories have improved and gave better understanding of children cognitive development and also in the education. References Berk, L. E. (2000). Child Development. 5th ed. Massachusetts: Allyn & bacon. Martin, G. N., Carlson, N. R., & Buskist, W. (2010). Psychology. 4th ed. Essex:Pearson Education. Gross, R. (2004). Psychology: The science of mind and behaviour. 3rd ed. Tonbridge: Hodder & Stoughton. Piaget, J. (1950). The Psychology of Intelligence. New York: Routledge Classics.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Pros and Cons of Inclusive Education Essay

Pros and Cons of Inclusion in a general education classroom Inclusion in a general classroom is one of the largest controversies that schools face today. Most administrators, parents and teachers question the likely academic impacts associated with the placement of students with special needs into general educational classrooms. Inclusion is the educational approach that requires students with disabilities to learn together with non-disabled students. Rather than the segregation of students based on their physical abilities and disabilities, inclusion dictates that each and every student is a learner who should benefit from a challenging, meaningful and appropriate curriculum. Despite the fact that inclusion had its focus on disabled students, it has been designed to accommodate diverse strengths, experiences, and challenges of all students. Research suggests that inclusion is beneficial for the students’ academic progress; increases social development and helps increase self- esteem of the students. The following annotations throw more light on the concept of inclusion in general educational classrooms. Caralee Adam’s â€Å"The Challenges of Inclusion†. She highlights that most experts and teachers support the objectives of inclusion. However, the main idea she addresses is responsible inclusion. In other words, the teachers and the experts are calling for modifications in the inclusion models such that some scenarios like violent or aggressive kids can be handled effectively.She presents relevant and sufficient evidence in the name of Bill Hutchison, a violent eleven-year old with Down syndrome. This source helps to highlight the key leverage points for effective inclusion. The reputable publication is obtained from a credible source and is sponsored by Scholastic Administrator. Adam owns a bachelor’s degree in Journalism and Mass Communication from Iowa State University and a master’s degree in political science from the University of Orleans. She i s a trusted and renowned freelance writer on topics such as health, personal finance, parenting education, et al. Barker’s Does Inclusion Help? This annotation addresses a range of questions through research but chiefly, the impact of inclusion on the entire body of students. On the same note, Barker is interested to know the attitude of disabled students towards learning. He provides sound evidence through a descriptive research. In line with the thesis statement, the publication helps us recognize the effect of inclusion on the students and their  attitudes too. Through this research we can answer whether inclusion really helps or not. This is a trusted reputable source too sponsored by the National Association of Special Education Teachers. Benefits of Inclusive Education. In contrast to most articles that focus on the benefits of inclusion to only disabled students, this annotation highlights what both disabled and non-disabled students benefit with by learning together in one classroom. For instance, disabled students are rewarded with friendships and social relations, greater access to general curriculum, greater opportunities to interact et al. The benefits to non-disabled students include: meaningful friendships, helps them respect all people, ability to understand and accept diversity et al. This source-Kids Together , Inc- is reliable as it is a nonprofit organization that provides resources and information for adults and children with disabilities. This agrees with our thesis statement on the benefits of inclusion in a general educational classroom. However, this source does not provide us with significant evidence through real-life examples or by research whether the specified benefits are actually realized. The next annotation is titled, â€Å"Cons of Inclusion†. This annotation highlights some of the arguments as well as the major concerns against inclusion. In particular, it states the disadvantages of inclusion in a general educational classroom.For instance, inclusion consumes a lot of the teachers time while some teachers lack training and classroom management is a difficult task. In spite of the fact that we do not know the exact author of this article, the source is reputable, credible and the evidence it provides in one 10-year-old Ryan with learning disabilities is magnificent. This evidence is collected through observational fieldwork and hence it is significant. It is too in line with the purpose of the essay though it features it is a one-sided scenario. In other words, it addresses the cons of inclusion rather than both the pros and cons of inclusion. Another interesting annotation on inclusive education is, â€Å"History of Inclusion† by Stephanie Torreno. A century ago, most disabled students were uneducated but today they do learn beside non-disabled students, thanks to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the subsequent 1986 and 1992 amendments. Consequently, educational and employment rights for disabled persons were  guaranteed by federal funded institutions. Most importantly, it brings to light a series of legislation s that have been adopted in the context of inclusive education and regarding employment of disabled persons. Understanding the history of inclusion helps us to evaluate how beneficial inclusion has been hence agreeing with our thesis statement about benefits of inclusion. This source is a reliable one as the author herself is disabled. And therefore we do believe in her interest regarding government laws on education and employment of disabled people. She was born in Niskayuna , USA and in spite of her physical disability, she owns a bachelor’s of Arts degree in Psychology and technical writing. Inclusion by CollenTomko is also another annotation on inclusive education that we focus on. According to Collen, the inclusion objective is attained when children fully participate in class activities as members with all the services and support that they require. Regardless of the class the students learn in, the developed plan should be around their individual needs. She asserts that, children do not necessarily have to become normal in order to effectively contribute to the world. This and in accordance with the context thesis statement on benefits of inclusion, we are able to understand the main goal of inclusion. Kids Together Organization is an already trusted source and Collen Tomko who holds her Bachelors degree from Pennsylvania State University is the president and co-founder of this non-profit organization providing more reason to believe her. Next is, Inclusive Learning Environment for Students with Special Needs. Dee Dickson is the founder of New Horizons for Learning (NHLF), a resource for comprehending learning. The network was used to convey new information to teachers. NHFL guides teachers on fresh effective teaching and learning practices so as to see the whole process of inclusion a success. For us to realize the full benefits of inclusion in general education classrooms, NHFL therefore provides teachers with updated information and resources to effectively educate inclusive classrooms. On Dee Dickson, she has taught each and every level right from elementary schools up to university. In this regard, her experience in teaching diverse students is profound and therefore provides reason to believe in her articles. Besides, New Horizons For Learning is an established, reputable and among the leading learning web sources that identify and communicate successful strategies to adopt in educational  practice. Another Inclusive education related annotation is SEDL-Issues About Change: Inclusion: The Pros and Cons. The article addresses the advantages and disadvantages of inclusion in general educational classrooms. Many questions are asked in this context, namely: what inclusion actually means; how inclusion looks like; comparison and contrast between full inclusion and mainstreaming, et al. It investigates a range of issues that surround inclusion. But chiefly, and in with reference to the thesis statement, the article highlights the pros and cons of this practice. The provision of a historical synopsis about special education development ensures that we could trust this source even though the author is not stated. The paper also provides us with implications for policy makers and educational practitioners. The other paper on the same topic is â€Å"Special Education Inclusion†. This article highlights the confusion the concept of inclusion causes to parents and educators. They do not know whether inclusion is required legally or not and also what is better for their children. The article therefore is about what institutions must do so as to maximally meet the needs of all disabled children. In other words, before we realize the benefits of inclusion, we must answer the question on what must be done and how it should be done. All stakeholders must be involved research, discussions and examination of the entire inclusive educational program for effective or fruitful planning. The annotation is sponsored by a credible source-The Winsconsin Education Association Council (WEAC) which is a representation of education of public employees. Special-needs Education: Does Mainstream Inclusion work? The article is about developing a closer relationship between mainstream schools and special education schools. Yes, ideal inclusion is very expensive but having special schools separately is expensive as well. The respondents featured in this article believe that the curriculum for disabled students needs to be totally different from that of non-disabled students but it is so heartbreaking when students are isolated and stuck in classrooms lacking specialized help. Hence advocates co-location so as to ensure that these students do not suffer. Thus, inclusion in general educational classrooms becomes the only choice. The source is from a UK-based newspaper-The Independent Saturday and can thus be trusted. Starr, Linda. â€Å"Inclusion: Has It Gone Too Far?† One of the advantages of inclusion is reduction of educational fragmentation and  provides an environment in which all the available educational resources are used to improve the performance of each and every child. Inclusive education can be designed for the benefit of both students and teachers through ensuring that all the fisca l and human resources are utilized for the entire body of students. Reduction in educational fragmentation is main benefit of inclusion and therefore in line with the thesis statement about the benefits of inclusion in general educational classrooms.

Theme Analysis “June Birthing”

Lisa Brooks 12:10-1:00 752 Theme Analysis â€Å"June Birthing† It’s like going to a restaurant and not knowing what you want to order. Once you come across the item that makes your mouth water, you find yourself not being able to leave until you are satisfied and know that this was something that you will remember forever. The theme of â€Å"June Birthing† by Joyce Carol Oates is that sometimes in life chance events can change someone’s life. The story tells about a chance meeting between a woman named Kathe Connor and a man named Lyle Carter.Kathe was a thirty-seven year old divorced woman. She lived her life routinely. She drove the same route â€Å"so frequently she has almost ceast to see her surroundings†(521). She was also very kind hearted and cared for others. Lyle Carter was a large, hard working man as described by Oates, â€Å"A big man in work clothes, torso like the trunk of a thick tree†(522). Contrary to his stature, he was a g entle, compassionate man. He, like Kathe, was divorced and set in his ways. He tells Kathe that â€Å"he’d become accustomed to being alone in this phase of his life†(526).Their chance meeting occurred when Kathe noticed something on the side of the road. She stopped to help this creature who ended up being a tiny newborn fawn. Lyle approached and almost hit Kathe’s car. He stopped and tried to help Kathe save the fawn. At the beginning of the story Kathe believed that chance meetings did not change lifes outcomes, however by the end she asks Lyle, ‘†You wouldn’t think a single fawn would matter so much, would you’†(527). Her question to Lyle shows she had experienced an epiphany, that by stopping to help the fawn it brought the two of them together.If she had not stopped they may have never met. Before this chance meeting Kathe and Lyle lived alone and seemed to be lonely. This event brought them together and they could become co mpanions. After meeting him her life may have new meaning and not so routine. Lyle is able to show his gentle, caring side to someone he had been missing in his life. He told Kathe â€Å"that he knew what it was to feel strongly about an animal†(526). This shows that he has compassion just as Kathe did about the fawn. Together they can balance each other out.The title â€Å"June Birthing† has more than just one meaning. The first meaning can relate to the fawn being born in June. The second meaning the beginning of a relationship between Kathe and Lyle. Everyone comes to a path in life that they must choose which way to go. The choice people make can change a life forever. Works Cited Oates, Joyce Carol. â€Å"June Birthing† Perrine’s Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense 11th ed. Ed. Thomas R. Arp and Greg Johnson. Boston Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2012. 521-527.

Monday, July 29, 2019

The fit between published theory on project management and personal Essay

The fit between published theory on project management and personal practice as a result of my participation in the ActiveBeing project 2014-15 - Essay Example According to this institution, the best leisure and sports facilities require making a consideration for â€Å"Accessible sports facilities† (, 2010:n.p.). Thus, the fit between published theory and the project management pilot panning has been accomplished in this regard. This is because; the pilot planning has made all the necessary designing of the ActiveBeing leisure complex to ensure that it accommodates the needs of persons with disability; both the employees and clients wishing to use the gym and other leisure facilities offered in the complex. This is an important consideration, owing to the fact that; according to section 21 of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 of the UK, it is the duty of the providers of any public services to make the necessary adjustments for accommodating the needs of the disabled persons (, 1995:n.p.). Therefore, the necessary considerations have been made to adjust the leisure complex buildings, so as to allow people with disability to access the complex through elevators. The Equality Act 2010 provides that it is the rights of the people with disability to be facilitated to access desired goods, services or facilities (Government Equalities Office, 2010:6). Thus, the elevators will move the persons with disabilities up and down the floor, so they can access the leisure facilities. This consideration is essential, since it ensures complying with the provisions of the UN conventions on the rights of persons with disabilities, which provides that such the needs of such people should be recognized and planned for, as a way of recognizing their dignity, worth and equal rights to enjoy services, good and facilities (United Nations 2006:n.p.). The fit between the published theory and the project management pilot planning has also been achieved, under the provisions of the management-as-planning theory. According to the provisions of management-as-planning theory, there exists a strong causal

Sunday, July 28, 2019

A simple convenient DNA collection and storage method for GWAS Essay

A simple convenient DNA collection and storage method for GWAS analysis using FTA - Essay Example Fujita (2006). It comprises of a cellulose-based matrix containing chemicals for cell lysis and nucleic acid preservation.   The chemicals are activated when a biological fluid contacts the surface.   An additional feature of this chemical treatment is bacterial and viral inactivation.   Not only are the biosamples protected from microbial growth contamination, but the user is also protected from any potential biohazards present in the biosample.   These features make FTA paper an ideal medium for transporting bioamples at room temperature without the requirement of a biohazard shipping label. FTA paper is a commonly used substrate for DNA storage in a number of industries such as pharmaceutics, law enforcement, agriculture and governmental regulatory agencies.   This medium has been available commercially for a number of years by Whatman Inc., who have demonstrated that DNA stored on FTA paper has a long, useful lifetime.   In fact, suitability for use of DNA recovered from up to seventeen year-old biosamples in human identification assays has been demonstrated, inarguably. and aniline dyes; or liver tumours and vinyl chloride). The high prevalence of limb malformations in newborns in the late 1950s was ultimately found to be due to the mothers’ ingestion of thalidomide during pregnancy. German National Ethics Council (2004). However genetic epidemiology studies not individuals but population groups. Biobanks serve as large molecular repositories where a large amount of data in the form of DNA from diverse sources can be compared. For example, the United Kingdom BioBank intends to archive the genetic material of 5,00,000 individuals as mentioned in UK Biobank literature. Large series of samples from donors (several hundred to several thousand) with a given multifactorial hereditary condition – such as hypertension, cancer, diabetes, asthma or epilepsy – are compared with corresponding series from healthy donors. The

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Strategic Plan for INJAZ QATAR Org Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 8500 words

Strategic Plan for INJAZ QATAR Org - Essay Example The study will also focus on a thorough analysis of the vision, mission, financial ratios, and competitive advantage of Injaz. The internal and external environment of Injaz will be analyzed using SWOT, Porter’s five factors, McKenzie’s 7S framework, and smart objectives generation for the company to achieve success in its operations. Injaz is a subsidiary of Junior Achievement (JA) Worldwide, which is a global nongovernmental organization operating in 123 countries. The establishment of Junior Achievement occurred in United States in 1919 and began international operations in Ontario, Vancouver, and Windsor: British Columbia. Injaz started operation in Levant region in 1999 and with further expansion, operations began in 2004 in the Gulf Region leading to the establishment of Injaz, which this strategic management project is based. Injaz is a nongovernmental organization founded in September 2007 by Sheikha Hamadi Alm Thani who is the chairperson of INZAJ Qatar and AMWAL. She is the deputy CEO of Nasser Bin Khaled Al Thani & Sons Group and CEO of Al Waab City Real Estate Development project. She has a passion for community activities and the development community members, especially women and youth. Injaz was established with the aim of closing the gap between the skills acquired by the students in the learning environment in both public and private institutions and the skills required for success in the working environment. This is achieved through taking the students through entrepreneurship, work readiness, and financial literacy, as a measure of augmenting their ability to make a difference and be accountable at their workplace, as a team member and individually. Injaz collaborates with individuals, secondary schools, universities, corporations, and volunteers who take the students through the programs offered by the organization. Injaz courses

Friday, July 26, 2019

Collage of Echoes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Collage of Echoes - Essay Example A literal interpretation of the poem could simply detail a human experience, whereas an analytical level of interpretation could provide a better justification of the poet’s ideas. In Collage of Echoes, the gender and identity of the persona are not specified, thus for ease of interpretation, one may assume to use the author’s gender. The persona in the poem is doing a self-talk or reflection. In the opening lines, she tells herself, â€Å"I have no promises to keep/Nor miles to go before I sleep† (1-2). These lines reveal that the persona has no obligations to accomplish, and no places to visit. Pleased with this thought, she expresses her intention to sleep or relax. Based on this, readers may think of the persona as a busy person, possibly an adult engaged in business, who, at the end of the day tells herself that she can sleep after she has accomplished her responsibilities. However, the repetition of the phrase, â€Å"no promises to keep† (7) could ma ke the reader realize that a literal interpretation of the poem is not enough to deduce the author’s ideas, hence, a deeper level of analysis is needed. An analytical interpretation of the poem requires deducing of meaning based on the author’s use of literary devices.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Two high school teachers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Two high school teachers - Essay Example gh school teachers is the same that is guiding and educating the students; despite of this, their way of teaching, giving instructions and their relationship with the students is very different. Both the teachers are excellent at their job but their methodologies of teaching differ from each other. My Maths teacher places greater emphasis on class work and ensures that all students complete the work taught in class there and then. She does not burden the students with homework. Instead, her stress is more on regularly testing the students and she conducts class tests every week. This is a method used by her to make sure that the students study at home and practice for the tests. She does not overburden the students by giving them too much of homework and conducting tests at the same time. On the other hand, my English teacher tries to spend greater time in class to explain and teach the students and answer their queries. He does not provide much work in class. But he ensures that the students are given regular homework. He does not conduct regular class tests but rather he takes monthly tests. He follows this pattern so that the students gain the maximum in class and revise the subject while doing the homework. Both the teachers try that their students gain the maximal knowledge, but their instructional goals are different; such as the student’s grade, what they would like their students to learn, and what a successful future is for the students. It is the goal of every teacher to make their students learn new things and to enhance their knowledge but their approaches vary. My English teacher focuses on helping the students improve in their weak points rather than only focusing on their strengths. He wants us to improve ourselves not just in a particular sector but to be all-rounders. According to him, our successful future depends on not just being book-worms or getting high grades but also being intellectual and smart. He expects us to have clear concepts

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Life science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Life science - Essay Example In the virtual education, mentors and students are not required to collaborate personally in a room (Christensen). Virtual education is particularly a blessing for individuals who can not make it to the institution. For example, young mothers with infants can often not manage to find time for attending the educational institution regularly. Likewise, working people often spare their academic progress because of work. With the facility of distance education at hand, people have been able to manage studies with work. They do not have to spare work in order to continue with their studies. Instead, they can maneuver their schedule to study after or before work as appropriate. The virtual world has diminished the significance of physical limitations and boundaries, while the quality of education has been maintained, rather enhanced in the virtual world as students can repeatedly attend the same lectures until concepts are clear. â€Å"While the lectures and assignments are preplanned and may be viewed multiple times, the student still has access to the instructor† (Tatum). I feel connected to the science through virtual education. Works cited: Christensen, Tricia E. â€Å"What is virtual education?† 2011. Web. 4 Feb. 2011. .

Financial Plan ABC Pharmaceuticals Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Financial Plan ABC Pharmaceuticals - Essay Example Moderate Pain-Control Medication Project, named MPMP, is the upcoming project of ABC Pharmaceuticals. Since its inception in 1997, the company has excelled in severe pain medication market and after several years of presence in the pharmaceuticals industry, the company has acquired a major share in the market segment it serves, not to mention the brand name and excellence in the pharmaceuticals industry’s fundamentals. Based on its experience in the market, the company plans to develop differentiated pain control products that provide the flexibility and versatility required to address the limitations of existing prescription pain medications in supervised health care settings. Resource Planning for MPMP MPMP is an extension project. Most of the resources of the existing product line, especially on the soft side such as human resources and technical resources could support the new product line as well. However, certain additional resources would also be required to support the project; encompassing, production plants, human resources such as production labor and specialists in moderate pain control medication, working capital, office supplies etc (see details in section 2). A brief of the resources required are as follows: Human Resources: Production specialists in the area of moderate pain-control medication would be required. In line with the previous experience, three specialists each at the three production locations of the company would suffice. Apart from that, production labor would be required. Based on the sales forecasts, as such three teams, each comprising 10 workers (daily wagers), supervised by a production incharge and headed by the area specialist, would be established. The core human resource function would remain at the head office. Technical Resources: For the first five years of the project, three production plants will be fixed at the current production sites. Each plant will have the capacity to produce approximately 15,000 units a year (including breakdowns, if any). Budget Allocation for MPMP The total estimated cost of the project comes to $ 10,500 million calculated as follows

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

The notion of corporate social responsibility of business Essay

The notion of corporate social responsibility of business organizations - Essay Example It is evident from the study that various business organizations, ranging from small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to large corporate organizations, exist across the globe providing some service or products to their clients. Essentially, the businesses engage in some activity like production of goods or delivery of service to generate some revenue to enhance its sustainable development. This becomes the traditional economic role of the business organization. However, the operations of these business organizations are carried out in some societal context involving the human population and the environment. Thus, there is interrelation and mutual interaction between the company and the society. Besides, the business operations have to be carried out according to legislative provisions in a given country in which the organization operates. The governments and other regulatory agencies have legislation stretching across various social sectors including health, environmental, the fis cal policies, and the monetary policies among many others. Ethical considerations also need to be considered in executing the business operations by an organization. Various individuals affect, and are affected by, the operations of a given organizations. These individuals are termed the stakeholders of the organization. The interrelation has generated debates among academic scholars on the roles that business organizations need to play in the society. The societies have their interests and so do the business organizations. ... Corporate social responsibility involves performing roles that go beyond the legal obligations that prevail in a given region (Fontaine et al, 2006). It involves the organizations’ role in promoting social and economic developments in the communities while working with the employees, their families, the customers, the shareholders, the community members, and the larger society. This paper expounds the notion of social responsibility of business organizations. The rise of corporate social responsibility for business organizations Even though the notion of corporate social responsibility has come into the brighter limelight in the past three decades, the debates on this issue began as early as the 1950s (Heath & Ni, 2008) when scholars began to question the role of businesses in the society. The evaluation has since extended to non-profit and governmental agencies as well. The main point of concern in CSR is whether the business organizations add any value to the societies in wh ich they operate as they strive to achieve their mission and vision (Heath & Ni, 2008). CSR emerged and developed as a realization by the members of the public that the business organizations should no longer belong to their owners or founders (Carroll & Buchholtz, 2008, p.82). The society has developed various new expectations on the business organizations. The major characterization of corporate social responsibility in a business organization is how the organization involves its stakeholders like the customers, the stockholders, the employees, suppliers, the governments, non-governmental organizations, and international organizations in its business operations and strategy development (Fontaine et al, 2006).

Monday, July 22, 2019

Paper Puppet Essay Example for Free

Paper Puppet Essay Productions in companies may be attributed to activities, such as the paper puppet production. Such productions are normally utilized in the fabrication of electronic gadgets, automobiles, and the like. Being able to experience such activity gave me an entertaining and amusing feeling. The thought of line production has always given me a negative feeling, for the same things were repeatedly done for a specific time frame. The activity, â€Å"Paper Puppets†, was an exercise that gaged the productivity and efficiency of workers, while following a specific order. For this exercise, one would act as the supervisor, while the rest was divided into two groups. The first group was assigned to time the task, at the same time make observations, while the second group was to do the tasks. Two rounds were done so as both groups could be able to perform the activity, before the results were finally compared. There was a delay in the first puppet made, for there was an imbalance in the distribution, resulting to uneven work load. A wallop was formed with the uneven distribution of work assignments, denting the production time. An evenly distributed load resulted in a 1-minute production, while uneven workload resulted in a 3-minute production. This resulted to a 2-minute time difference, decreasing the production to a saddening 60%. In the end, both puppets passed the standards set by the Quality Control and Assurance department. However, the second puppet was better than the first, for adjustments have been made as improvements of the first puppet. From the experience I had, I discovered that line production was focused not only on the efficiency of the the workers, but also on the quantity and quality of the products made. A flimsy mistake committed by a worker would result in the imperfection of one or several products. With the continuous upgrading of technology nowadays, companies tend to prefer the use of systems and machineries other than human workers. This is primarily due to the fact that machines tend to commit lesser mistakes as compared to human workers, since they are programmed to make unflawed products. In addition to this, the decrease in defects also increases the companys production, resulting to more profit for the company. The purpose of line production is to increase their productivity at a specific time frame as much as possible, and not decrease it. The activity made me realize that this kind of work would be uninteresting for someone like me. I cannot imagine myself being part of a line for the whole day, and on a paced motion. I felt that this kind of work was a way to put down the aspirations and dreams of the workers, who were mentally and physically weary of their job. In order for companies to have quality and quantity assured products,I suggest that a rotation in their jobs be made by the management. This would make the workers become more diversified with their line of work. However, this may also result in more complex problems and imperfections in the products, for the workers are not experienced enough to be in a specific field. Everything is a process. I guess with everyones cooperation and support, such a process may be made in order to make high grade products that can be exported to the different parts of the world.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Definition of Community in Community Health Nursing

Definition of Community in Community Health Nursing Give a definition of what a community is it is not solely geography, but includes factors of culture, ethnicity, age, etc. Consider principles of community care and critically discuss how a PHN in Ireland could ensure that care provided in her particular community is both inclusive and comprehensive. Introduction A community may be defined in many different ways. Community care can also be defined differentially, maybe in relation to a fundamental philosophy, may in terms of imposed limitations and definitions of community delineation. Discussion One definition of;community’ is â€Å"A social group of any size whose members reside in a specific locality, share government, and often have a common cultural and historical heritage† ( This notion of community identifies the key elements of community in relation to healthcare that concern healthcare service providers and policy makers. Communities can be defined in terms of their location, but it is not enough to delineate communities in terms of specific areas, because communities are not simply collections of people who are in close proximity with each other by happenstance (Webb, 1986). Communities occur because of features which bring people together, often because of need, such as family support, or because of common interest, such as healthcare support groups. However, not all groups which share a common interest are communities (Trevilion, 1993). Location and purpose seem to be aspects of com munity, sharing not only common interest but common activities and common purposes, common concerns and common needs (Sines et al, 2005). Culture, ethnicity, age, gender, sexuality, all of these can be characteristics which define a community, but they could also be different elements of identities and needs within a particular community. For example, it is possible to talk of traveller community health, traveller women’s health, gay men’s health, and the like, and thus we are referring to communities which may exist within geographical communities, or despite geographical boundaries (McMurray, 2003). Within the United Kingdom, issues surrounding community health and wellbeing have concerned healthcare providers, particularly in defining distinct communities or sectors of communities, in order to identify health needs and develop and mobilise services in order to meet those needs (Lewis, 1999). However, these needs and the communities focused on have been traditionally limited to government-defined communities or definitions of who belongs to what community (Lewis, 1999). More recently, the re-orientation of UK healthcare services towards a more patient-centred model has led to the upsurge of service user involvement in design, development and evaluation of services (Pickar et al, 2002; Simpson et al, 2006; Tait and Lester, 2005; Telford and Faulkner, 2004; Humphreys, 2005). This could be viewed as a means of breaking down the traditional hierarchical barriers between ‘the community’ or communities being served by healthcare providers, and the providers themselves (Telford and Faulkner, 2004). Addressing community needs can be informal, local, or national and formal, and seems to form part of governance strategies in the UK and Ireland (DoHC, 2001). Such strategies also now seem to focus not only on the service user information role, through gathering feedback and through service user involvement (Poulton, 1997), but also the need for greater collaboration, within and between healthcare and community/ social care/ voluntary sector agencies (Cumberledge, 1986; Fisher et al, 1999). These are all very good ideals, but in order to make user involvement and collaborative approaches work, information needs to be applied to practice, and practice needs to be changed for the better. This requires staff at some level to enforce these changes. It might be that the Public Health Nursing role within the Irish community healthcare context could be viewed as one of the loci for the enforcement of community-oriented healthcare provision. However, more information is needed on how this ‘enforcement’ of change could be achieved through this role. For example, collaborative care planning, needs assessment and care provision has existed for decades (see for example, Webb, 1986), but this kind of joined up working is still not a reality of practice, with failings in communication and challenges of interprofessional working still dogging the footsteps of primary healthcare providers (Poulton and West, 1999). If healthcare providers cannot work well with each other, they set a poor example for joined up working with community-focused or community-derived groups, as well as individuals who identify themselves as belonging to certain communities. Community services within the Irish context cover both health services –primary, secondary and tertiary – and social care services, all of which are supposed to meet the needs of the individual and the community. However, provision and suitability of services can vary by location. Because of the diverse nature of communities, it might be difficult to provide services which meet all community needs in any given location. This would suggest a need for flexibility of care provision, and again underlines the need for good inter-professional, inter-disciplinary, and inter-agency working. Public Health Nurses are accustomed to working with multiple professions and agencies, but there is a need to re-evaluate concepts of diversity in relation to the communities which occur within their sphere of practice. Conclusion Community is a term which encompasses many aspects of social life. Healthcare services which have a community focus would have to be very flexible, adaptable, and even creative, because of the increasingly diverse nature of communities. This diversity emerges not only from social changes, some of which are driven by economic, media and technological changes, but also by new understandings of communities and their inherent components, differences and similarities. Community focused models of service design and provision are those which would involve service users in design, planning, governance and evaluation of services, but such involvement must be representative of the increasing diversity of the communities concerned. Public health nurses are in a good position to access and support all sectors of the community within the Irish context, and to support service users to provide input into all levels of health and social care provision, even into healthcare professional education. However, understanding communities is an ongoing issue and services must be designed to reflect the true needs of each community. As such, they must be responsive rather than prescriptive. References Cumberlege, J. (1986) Collaboration. London: Centre for Advancement of Interprofessional Education Department of Health and Children (2001) Primary Care: a New Direction. Available from: Accessed 10-11-08. Fisher, B., Neve, H. Zoe, H. (1999) â€Å"Community development, user involvement and primary health care: community development has much to offer primary care groups.† British Medical Journal 318 (7186) 749-750. Humphreys, C. (2005) Service user involvement in social work education: a case example. Social Work Education 24 (7) 797-803. Lewis, J. (1999) The concepts of community care and primary care in the UK: the 1960s to the 1990s Health and Social Care in the Community 7 (5) 333-341. McMurray, A. (2003) Community Health and Wellness A Sociological Approach. 2nd Ed. Elsevier, Australia Pickar, S., Marshall, M., Rogers, A. et al (2002) â€Å"User involvement in clinical governance.† Health Expectations 5 187-198. Poulton, B.C. (1997) Consumer feedback and determining satisfaction with services. IN: Mason, C. (ed) Achieving Quality in Community Health Care Nursing London: Macmillan Press. Poulton, B. and West, M. (1999) The Determinants of Effectiveness in Primary Health Care Teams. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 13:1 Simpson, E.L, Barkham, M, Gilbody, S. and House, A. (2006) Involving service users as researchers for the evaluation of adult statutory mental health services. The Cochrane Library 3 Sines, D., Appleby, F. and Frost, M. (2005) Community Health Care Nursing 3rd Ed. Bath: Blackwell Publishing. Tait, L. Lester, H. (2005) â€Å"Encouraging user involvement in mental health services.† Advances in Psychiatric Treatement 11 168-175. Telford, R. and Faulkner, A. (2004) Learning about service user involvement in mental health research. Journal of Mental Health 13 (6) 549-559. Trevillion, S. (1993) Care in the Community a Networking Approach to Community Partnership. London: Longman Van Teijlingen, E.R., Hundley, V., Rennie, A.M. et al (2003) Maternity satisfaction studies and their limitations, Birth 30 (2) 75-82. Webb, A. (1986) Collaboration in Planning a pre-requisite of Community Care. In Webb, A. and Sistow, G. Eds. Planning Needs and Scarcity. Essays on Personal Social Services. London: Allen and Unwin

Right to Free Movement in the European Market

Right to Free Movement in the European Market The philosophy The right to move freely represents one of the fundemental freedoms of the European internal market. This general rule on free movement rights under EC law continues to be developed,[1] either due to member state progression or economic and social demands. Although one of the most panoramic in it’s ideals, the free movement of workers has seen several central legal issues arise on various occassions. But exploration of these central issues must be seen through a consideration of the tensions and interplay between both economic and social aspects of the free movement of people from both inside and outside of the European Union. The free movement of a citizen of the European Unon is seen to contribute to the economic progression of the Community as a whole. In the single market the worker is also a human being exercising their right to live in another state and to take up employment without the risk of discrimination and to improve the standards of living for themsleves, and possibly, their families. But for nationals of a third party cases such as Chen (2004), Baumbast (2002) and Carpenter (2002) have meant that as the spouse or realtive of an EU citizen their entry into the Community is a secure one. Further, gaining the same rights of an EU citizen under Regulation 1612/68 EEC. But this idea of border controls and unfettered freedom of movement within the Community is closely interlinked with the posiiton of the non-EC national, whose right to movement and residence under EC law is limited,[2] as well as the contribtuing effect that the members states’ attitude has upon their admission.[3] â€Å"Fortress Europe† Although EC legislation had intended that internal barriers to the four freedoms be eliminated and that only an external barrier (at the borders of the Community) remain, academics have argued that this may not always be so:[4] â€Å"[how] these proposals have been watered down through discussion in member states, in particular in relation to employment, which is an important requisite for the integration of migrants.†[5] Whilst the freedom of the EC worker is guaranteed through Treaty rules and secondary legislation, this does not mean that member states may no longer exercise control over population movements, into and within their territories.[6] But some ECJ case law on Directive 68/360 expressly recognised that member states may have legitimate reasons for wishing to keep account of the population within their terrrtories.[7] The European Union, by using border controls to it’s extremities, has managed ot create a border-free, intra-EU site creating what has been dubbed as â€Å"Communierisation† of its geographical position. Although the EU has been successful in its pursuit of removing internal barriers to the four freedoms, it’s imposition of external barriers (namely, the â€Å"fortress Europe† tendany) are imposing upon those nationals of third parties from stepping into Europe unless they are related to a citizen of the EU who excerts their right to free movement. The EU has long been attacked as an exclusionary organisation concerned solely with the citizens of its own member states at the cost of non-EU citizens residing in the EU, even though many of the latter form part of ethnic or religious minorities and suffer social exclusion.[8] So, it seems that the principles governing the borders of the Community are failing those third party nationals.[9] The â€Å"Outsiders† A vivid example of how â€Å"fortress Europe† had imposed this restriction can be noted prior to the accession in 2004 of many, now, Central and Eastern European countries. Lavenex[10] argues that prior to, and with suggestions of accession for Central and Eastern European countries the, then, current members of Europe had feared large-scale immigration from these countries into their own territories. The EU’s already heavily regiinented rules of external border barriers on trade and migration from â€Å"outsiders† (those countries not members of the EU) where to form part of the accession policies. Meaning that the acceeding Central and Eastern European countries encountered stringent preventative stances to their entrance into the EU on beahlf of the Community. But during a time when security at an intergovernmemtal level is already on red alert due to heightened tensions caused by the threat of terrorism,[11] it appears that migration has become a security rather than economic issue. So risking mmigrants and asylum-seekers being portrayed as a challenge to the protection of national identity and welfare provisions. Moreover, supporting the political construction of migration as a security rather than economic issue.[12] Getting in or staying out? The treatment of third country nationals (besides those who have derived rights through Community family members) can be understood through external and internal dimensions. The external element, namely the issue of â€Å"getting into the EU† focuses on the member staes and the institutions emphasis of immigration and border controls. Yet, according to the case of Wijsenbeck[13], the member states are still able to perfomr checks at their own borders, be them external or not. But this policing of movement draws attention to the vulnerablity of the third country national.[14] But progression has been felt. Through Artcles such as K.1 to K.9 of the TEU governing policies such as asylum, immigration and third country nationals which have now been intergrated into the EC Treaty (as Title IV) , as well as Regulations have now inacted the uniform format for visas.[15] Regulations also cover the listings of third countries whose nationals must be on possession of visas when crossing external borders.[16] Importanly, the area of immigartion and the member states’ stance on the matter of border control is liable to change in accordance with their political climate. The emphasis post-September 11th has fallen squarely on matters of security.[17] Various member states have also expressed concern at the numbers of third country nationals seeking asylum in their territory, so reinforcing their diffculties in gaining access into the EU. The internal dimension of the matter is one which concentrates on the rights of third country nationals already residing within the Community. As there is no stringent source as to their status upon this; such limiteed rights are based on various possible provisions. This can include their capacity as a family member of an EU citizen (as aforementioned) or as employees of EC service providers or as subject to one of the Community’s Assocaition, Co-operation or other International Agreements with third countries.[18] Even though their residence in the EU may be legitimate the general range of EC rights and freedoms, however, do not apply to them. With speculation increasing as to the possible imposition of ID cards within the UK has also been backed by the controversial possible introduction of the staus of European citizenship. This citizenship, which would be conditional upon the possession of member state nationality, may only serve to emphasise the differences in treatment between EU nationals, who possess such nationality, and those who do not. But from an economic standpoint, countries potentially out of the line of terrorist fire have welcomed the idea of third country nationals, especially those intending to work, as being a potential boost to their economy. Yet the richer member states argue that the heightened security risks and â€Å"flood gate† effects that recent accession has had is already having an adverse effect on their economies. Concluding Staying stationaery or moving through the times? But Peers[19] argues that change may soon be on the horizon with the implementation of Directive 2003/109 on the status of long-term resident third-country nationals within the European Union. This Directive was an opportunity to address the long-standing criticism that the EU gives insufficient protection to its resident third country nationals. Already being reported as limited and disappointing in a number of respects. Yet, if consequential jurisprudence reflects its interpretation as being in line with the context and objectives of the Directive, it could make a positive contribution to the status of third country nationals in the EU. This especially as in regards to movement between member states.[20] By common accord, the unity the EU claims for itselff when constituting itself as an â€Å"area of freedomn, secrutiy and justice† has become troublesome. Critics are quick to point out that the area in which freedom, security and justice are to reign is a â€Å"spurious geographical unity†.[21] Yet, even if it were to be accepted that Europe is a geographical union, the fact remains that the EU has agreements with countries outside of this territory (such as the 1963 Ankara Agreement with Turkey), meaning that EU extends its reach outside of this area.[22] One of the main arguments behind the impact Europe is having by â€Å"sealing off† its border lies closer to home. Given that accession into the Community is based upon adaptation of national policies, be them economic, political or social, to those already established within the EU, many countries faced closing their borders to the outside for upholding the principles of preventing illegal immigration. But, in contrast to this member states are also expected to uphold the humanitarian standards of refugee protection[23] and the principles of the European Human Rights Act. With the EU being a figure-head in the creation and implementation of human rights agendas, this contradiction will only serve to weaken the EU’s leading political status. Where member states face penalties for failing to uphold either of these policies, many are at a loss as to which one prevails. These conflicting ideals have obviously affected the manner in which those member states with borders to the â€Å"outside† have integrated the principles into their immigration and refugee procedures. Further to Lavenex’s idea of fear of mass migration by the West, Huysmans alleged that the question of migration from countries external to the EU is a security problem rather than just one of immigration and asylum. As Huysmans states: â€Å"Since the 1980s, the political construction of migration increasingly referred to the destabilizing effects of migration on domestic integration and to the dangers for public order it implied.†[24] Huysmans also alleged that due to such developments as the Schengen Agreements and the Dublin Convention â€Å"†¦visibly indicate that the European integration process is implicated in the development of a restrictive migration policy and the social construction of migration into a security question.† This meaning that access for third country nationals is now even tougher maybe the member states would prefer for the barriers surronding â€Å"fortress Europe† to reamin? The Schengen Convention completely removed border controls and placed stricter contorls at the external barrier of the EU. This resulting in a stronger emphasis on external restrictions and lifting all restirtcions between member states. The Schengen scheme had been directly accredited to concerns over the increase of organised crime within the Coimmunity. But with conerns inceasing still as to the problems of human and drugs trafficking into the EU from third countries and its threat to internal security only serves to push the issue of external border control into the spotlight once again. Ultimately, academic writing[25] has contemplated the responsibility of the EU to uphold it’s policy on human rights and it’s prevention of internal barriers to freedom of movement. But as inportant as thiese priniples may be in maintaining structure and authority the Community should also reconsider it’s position on a global scale when encountering the needs of asylum seekers at their external borders as well as those already residing with them without the claim of derived rights. Footnotes [1] Carrerra, S. (2005) [2] Peers, S. Towards Equality: Actual and Potential Rights of Third Country Nationals in the Euroepan Union. (1996) [3] Craig, P and De Bà ºrca, G. EU Law: Text, Cases and Materials. [4] Binkman, G (2004) [5] op cit [6] I bid 3 [7] Case 321/87 Commission v Belgium (1989) ECR 997 [8] Peers, S. (2004) [9] ECRE (2004) [10] Lavenex, S. Safe Third Countries: Extending the Eu Asylum and Immigration Policies to Central and Eastern Europe [11] Levy (2005) [12] Huysmans (2000) [13] (1999) [14] I bid 3 [15] Reg. 334/2002 [16] Reg. 359/2001 [17] I bid 11 [18] I bid 2 [19] I bid 8 [20] op cit [21] Lindahl, H. Finding a Place for Freedom, Security and Justice: The European Union’s claim to Territorial Unity. (2004) [22] ibid 8 [23] I bid 10 [24] Huysmans (2002) [25] I bid 21

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The Nature of Evil in William ShakespeareÂs Othello Essay -- William

William Shakespeare’s Othello uses different and unique techniques in his language to express the nature of evil throughout the play. Verbal twists and the characters most importantly stress the act of evil. Iago, most of all is portrayed as the “villain” or “protagonist in the play. Shakespeare uses this character to set the basis of evil. Each plot point is spiraled further into tragedy due to the nature of Iago and his manipulative language towards the other main characters. Corruption overcomes the Venetian society as Iago uses his crafty skills of deceit. The plan to have Othello turn against the ones he loves is the perfect example of evil’s nature. The power struggle is evident between these two. This situation is the start to Iago’s plan to corrupt the society and take Othello’s place. The root of Iago’s “evil” is jealousy indeed, in turn changing into a power hungry manipulator. Iago is tired of acting like one "courteous and knee-crooking knave" like he always appears to be [I. i. 46]. Since Iago is reluctant to choose to be a master, he is the servant that bites off the fame and "keep yet their hearts attending on themselves," still showing his service to his master but instead is more self-preserving with no attachments at all towards the master [I. i. 52]. Irony is used diligently in Shakespeare’s unique language style. Referred by Othello as “honest Iago”, the irony is very evident in this title. Iago is everything but honest but this proves how easily led and manipulated Othello is. The traits Iago possess are unexpected to a normal villain. He comes across as charming and smart, he can also be referred to a wolf in sheep’s clothing. For example, he knows Roderigo is in love with Desdemona and figures that he ... ...or a most attractive, popular, good-natured, charming, selfish, cold-blooded and utterly unscrupulous scoundrel.” (pp. 333-34) [Grant: Studies in Shakespeare, Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1886, pp. 205] This excerpt further explains Iago’s nature being exactly how Shakespeare intended yet a little different than what the average reader would think of him. The nature of evil is strictly evident as the play comes to an end, yet it is viewed as an opinion or a theory whether Iago is truly “evil.” Ironically, Iago’s words speak louder than his actions, proving how legitimate Shakespeare’s use of language for the character was. This dynamic use of language is significant because it can alter the thought of the reader whether Iago was truly evil or just using military tactics to better him. Iago and his use of language set the main plot for every characters outcome.

Friday, July 19, 2019

conflict between humanistic and scientific value :: essays research papers fc

HRM - Conflicts of Scientific and Humanistic Values 1.0 Introduction One of the popular theory of the â€Å"Critical Theorist â€Å" ( with referrence to the Marxist view ). science reduce humankind to passive objects beholden to the laws of "nature." Sociology, as a form of science, is therefore also criticized for making scientific studies a means to an end unto themselves, as well as for not recognizing the importance of the individual. Modern society at large is criticized for being obsessed with rationality and efficiency instead of human emancipation. Also, people have become overly controlled by technology. For example, constant stimuli such ad television pacify us and control our thoughts and emotions. Culture also comes under attack for becoming what has been termed a culture industry. Instead of having stories, beliefs or artifacts for their own sake, culture has become commodified It has lost spontaneity or the ability to inspire originality in people. Similarly, there is said to be a knowledge industry. Universities are seen as oppressive institutions more concerned with increasing their influence than in providing students with knowledge. Likewise, in the field of organization development, humanistic and scientific are two different and opposite elements that have always been in constant conflict and tension. And so often the measure of these conflicts are the effectiveness or efficiency of an organisation. In my point of view, "humanistic" in nature and approach, whatever the subject, seeks to solve problems "from a human-centered viewpoint." And hence this paper could be an attempt of such effort. 2.0 What is efficiency ? Efficiency is highly prized in a culture turned toward productivity. It is therefore cultivated in contemporary business administration theories. It also tends to be prized above all other values in modern society, as society is more and more oriented toward technological advancement. Efficiency is also defined here as the most economic or the shortest or fastest or most simple way of realizing or achieving a goal with the least cost. As a means of evaluating human activity in business and practical activity in general, efficiency is, therefore, the standard. It is a standard of quality pertaining to the action, but it cannot be considered a moral virtue, since the quality of good or evil does not derive from the form in which an objective is achieved but from the goal or end that the action achieves. To give an extreme example, one could say that Hitler and his engineers were extremely efficient in achieving the goal of exterminating Jews.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Reflective Account Essay

Candidate to provide narrative under each statement of how they meet the criteria and list the number of the piece(s) of evidence supplied to demonstrate this. (See also possible examples of evidence sheet). You must provide answers to each question that allow your examiner to properly assess what work duties you are doing or what role you have within your work. It expected that you will need approximately 200 words per question. The more detail you provide the less likely your account will be sent back for more clarification. You must answer each question in your own words and written in the first person meaning â€Å"I do this†. A tip is always to keep in mind the â€Å"who, why, how, where and when† in each answer. The induction process is arguably one of the most important primary processes within the organization. The initial importance is to ensure that the individual is working within the correct guidelines of the company policies and values, Safeguarding regulations and Care Quality Commission standards. It is then extremely important for the service users, so that staff understands and knows each individual and their support plans to ensure that the individual follows a person centered approach to caring for that individual. (1.1 and 1.4) The induction process is a continuous process throughout an individuals stay within the company and home. The induction process inevitably starts with the inductee. To identify and ensure that each individual during the process is inducted sufficiently UBU and the induction of staff look upon the learning types of the individual through job fit analysis. Neil Fleming (2012) states that there a 3 types of ‘learner’, the Visual Learner, the Au ditory Learner and the Kinaesthetic Learner. The Visual Learners learn best by visual stimuli such as graphs,  diagrams and pictures. These individuals will convey messages in a video or picture format rather than the written word. Auditory Learners are individuals who learn and with hold information best when in the written format or spoken, they benefit from lectures, notes, handouts and large paragraphs of information. Kinaesthetic Learners learn best through demonstrations and being hands on throughout the learning process. (3.1) I am in the understanding that this is why there are numerous ways in which we induct individuals to meet their learning styles. We firstly adapt to the Visual Learner by showing tenants files such as the tables, pictorial information about the individual which previous staff and individuals have created. Within the support we also have support plans, risk assessments and other information regarding the tenants for the auditory learners. Finally a 2 week hands on induction putting into practice the information and placing it into real life situations for the kinaesthetic learner. During the hands on shadowing induction we build upon the team strengths and individual strengths we have in a team. If we have individuals who are more sufficient in certain areas we have them induct the individual in that area or have the individual shadow them while they are doing that task. This is important as it builds worker relationships but also allows the individual to understand that within the company and support everyone is there to support each other and the service users. The inductee is then observed by me, my manager and/or the staff which they originally shadowed. We also on occasions where the individual can take control and show the individual the process or things they like to do such as certain walks or activities they like to do, how they get ready or washed. The individual is then empowered in the induction process and can comment on the inductee’s performance. It is also a key indicator in how that person is able to interact and also builds a worker and customer, working relationship. (3.2) I then gain feedback from the support staff through meetings with them personally (3.3) the inductee has then shadowed and been shadowed by other practitioners and the service user when applicable and this is then fed back through their later induction support session. Inductees then complete a 3 Day induction day with the company looking upon motivational tasks, presentations and team work activity to strongly embed the company ethos, agreed ways of working and appropriate values a member of staff should have when supporting the  individuals that we support. (1.2).Fleming also states individuals are simply not either or types of learners but sway to others but incorporate other forms dependant upon the information they are receiving. This p rocess is advantageous in this respect as it is incorporating all types of learner to ensure that the team is storing the correct information about the tenant and giving the correct level of support at the primary level. Through the review process of induction it is discussed with myself and the individual, what previous qualifications they have and, work or life experiences they have which can assist in their knowledge, which method they found easier to learn from, what areas they have found straightforward and difficult from there. Dependent upon their qualifications and experience we look upon what the inductee could input onto the care of the individuals we support and what could be done differently. The inductee is then observed on 3 occasions in the beginning of each area they need to learn and then passed once 3 successful observations are complete. Once the individual has gone through the home, individuals and company knowledge basics a look upon their job description and responsibilities is then looked at, a broad picture of how to move forward with the inductee and what is needed for them to grow within the company either through progression routes or progression in the level of care they g ive to the individual is built upon and moved forward. This includes areas the individual still needs training on, areas in which they are competent and areas and strengths the individual can bring to the support and how to incorporate these new ideas. (2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6) The induction process is therefore not simply left to the initial employment stage. The induction process is used when individuals need refreshment of certain stages of the enrolment, which is outlined through support sessions and retraining needs. It is also used if an individual has had or created issues in certain areas and reassessment is needed. It is then used to build on a person’s responsibility the more they progress. The inductee or current staff then go through the format of the induction process for their new responsibility and then pass once the 3 observation processes are complete in the new learnt skill (1.3) This process is circular in theory, so that it can be repeated with the same consistent process so individuals grasp and understand the company policies and procedures, CQC policies and procedures and local authority procedures. It  also ensures that the any area at anyone time can be readdressed to ensure processes are followed for individuals safety and safeguarding when required (1.4 and 1.5) The induction process is therefore an ever changing fluid process that is an adaptable tool within the organisation. It is important that the induction process is taken in this form to be able to be adaptable to changes within legislation, abilities of new staff and new training movements and needs of the company (4.1) It also important to take new forms of induction for example individuals still go through the paperwork and home induction process however as discussed the 3 away day inductions have only been introduced in the last year. This came about through feedback from team managers, local authorities and regional managers that staff had a good in depth knowledge induction but there needed to be more teamwork and with UBUs new goals for inspiring and stepping forward in the social theories of care they wanted staff to embody this way of thinking and working (4.4). This feedback can come in the form of suggestions made to the training managers via meetings held with regional managers. The auditing process from CQC and Local Authorities made as suggestions within final reports which is fed back to training managers (4.3) the company have How is it for you feedback forms that are filled out by the staff at the end of an induction process and then on a yearly basis there after. (4.2) (5.1 and 5.2) Referenced Evidence used in this Unit (List below) Fleming, N. (2012). Introduction to Vark. Retrieved from Candidate Signature:: Emma Hill Date: 01.07.13 The information within this Reflective Account is a true reflection of the candidate’s role, responsibilities and competence.

Characteristic of a research study Essay

1. reliability is a subjective term which washstand non be measured precisely only today there atomic number 18 instruments which displace estimate the reliability of each query. Reliability is the repeatability of whatever explore, query instrument, tool or procedure. If any look into yields alike results to each one time it is undertaken with exchangeable cosmos and with similar procedures, it is called to be a received research. read a research is conducted on the ca part of separation between parents on sectionalisation performance of the children. If the results conclude that separation causes humbled grades in class, these results should take a crap to be reliable for another ingest taken from similar community. More the results are similar more(prenominal) reliability is present in the research.2. stiffness is the strength with which we can call a research conclusions, assumptions or propositions true or false. hardship determines the applicability of research . Validity of the research instrument can be defined as the suitability of the research instrument to the research problem or how accurately the instrument measures the problem. Some researchers guess that validity and reliability are co-related scarce validity is much more grand than reliability. Without validity research goes in the malign direction. To keep the research on-track define your concepts in the silk hat possible dash so that no error occur during measurement.3. accuracy is also the degree to which each research process, instrument and tool is related to each other. Accuracy also measures whether research tools sire been selected in best possible manner and research procedures suits the research problem or not. For example if a research has to be conducted on the trans-gender people, several(prenominal)(prenominal) selective information order tools can be used depending on the research problems solely if you find that population less cooperative the best way is to observe them rather than submitting questionnaire because in questionnaire e truly they will give biased responses or they will not return the questionnaires at all. So choosing the best data hookup tool im take the stands the accuracy of research.4. Credibility comes with the use of best source of study and best procedures in research. If you are using second-hand information in your research due to any reason your research might shade in less time nevertheless its credibleness will be at stake because secondary data has been manipulated by human beings and is therefore not very valid to use in research. A certain percentage of secondary data can be used if primary feather source is not available tho basing a research completely on secondary data when primary data can be gathered is least(prenominal) credible. When researcher give accurate references in research the credibility of research increases that fake references also decrease the credibility of research.5. Generalizability is the extent to which a research findings can be applied to larger population. When a researcher conducts a study he/she chooses a target population and from this population he takes a small sample to conduct the research. This sample is representative of the alone population so the findings should also be. If research findings can be applied to any sample from the population, the results of the research are say to be generalizable.6. Empirical nature of research means that the research has been conducted come uping soaked scientific methods and procedures. Each step in the research has been tested for accuracy and is found on real number life experiences. valued research is more free to prove scientifically than qualitative research. In qualitative research biases and prejudice are easy to occur.7. Systematic admittance is the only approach for research. No research can be conducted haphazardly. Each step must follow other. There are set of p rocedures that have been tested over a conclusion of time and are thus worthy to use in research. Each research therefore should follow a procedure.8. Controlled-in real life experience there are many factors that effect an outcome. A wholeness event is often result of several factors. When similar event is tested in research, due to the broader nature of factors that effect that event, some factors are taken as conditionled factors small-arm others are tested for possible effect. The controlled factors or variables should have to be controlled rigorously. In vestal sciences it is very easy to control much(prenominal) elements because experiments are conducted in laboratory but in social sciences it becomes difficult to control these factors because of the nature of research.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Sonnet’s from the Portugese Analysis of all poems

Elizabeth Barrett toasting praise 1 Theme un judgeness of roll in the hay fall in hit the hay with Robert and his returning of her heat came as a big(p) awe to Elizabeth, considering past her circumstances. Analysis Reworks the usanceal praise sequence by transforming grammatical gender roles. She utilities the egg-producing(prenominal) voice instead of the tralatitious manlike voice. She assumes the role of epic poem hero. She adopts the patrician praise style. The octets inexorable rime pattern reflects how she feels her biographytime has been static so far.The sextets alternating adept rhymes modulate from move to strove to hunch reflecting gradual horny and weird pavework forcet as a resolution of discovering this unexpected recognize. The distortion of iambic pentameter reflects the garble and enharmonic patterns of her own life. B recitations past distort battle array how gladden escapes her- erst plot lieg. The brevity of once suggests that t his approximate- reputationd of honey Is fleeting. Once in about(prenominal) case has fairytale associations once upon a time which suggests that contend for her Is a myth.She utilities the unadulterated Greek reference (allusion) to Theocratic whose meter suggested that e substantive year of life brought saucy happiness with it. This allusion evokes the original pastoral tradition from Sicily and implicitly allows a existence of untarnished Italian paganism (and potential grammatical gender) Into the world of Victorian poetry. Creates a striking gist by victimization enjambment to traffic circle off a phrase at the rise of the sestets. Volta, (Italian turn) the turn in honey oilght in a praise that is often indicated by such sign de inhabitry as But, Yet, or And to that degree. The Volta occurs amidst the octet and sestets in a antiquated sonnet.Here the ideal hold ons from ancestry 8 to 9. This suggests that the melancholy blends it egotism across all aspects of her life. That she remembers the poem as creation sung (past tense) besides suggests that armory and afters have non been a intermit of her lifes journey. Listing the sugariness years, the dear and aspirationed for years The sweet ,sad years, the melancholy years. This over again emphasizes how much Joy and beauty she has missed out on and how much she has suffered antique tongue unstained procedural reference, could suggest these nonions ar extraneous to her rightful(prenominal) as an antique language is or that this happiness could only be rig in the past. Lung effectful and Jarring verb. toasting feels that fate has powerfully rear end she is straight an attri neverthelesse of her former self receivable to the infirmity, offering and oppression she has been by means of with(predicate) OR darkness has spread, there is no joyous of hope in her life. mystic Shape capitalizes-shape is personified. orphic means religiously allegorical, pertaining to mysteries of faith, pertaining to occult practices or ancient religions So This shape is foreign to her shape creation, form, destiny, from root of shape (v. )). Meaning contours of the strong-arm structure is attested from late ICC. Meaning groom, state is premier recorded 1865, Aimer. Eng.In M. E. , the reciprocation as well as had a sense of a fair sexs underground parts. hair An allusion to Homers Iliad. Epic which begins with A thena pulling Achilles by the hair. Divine intervention by the Gods. ebbing could see Borrowings jockey for her as portend intervention. Her allusion to Homers epic subtly suggests that there is virtuallything sumptuous and brave intimately this romantic engagement. The gender dynamic of this allusion should non be overlooked. At the opening of the Iliad Achilles and A bouncingmnon argon contending over who get out get to keep a clothed pistillate in his tent-an odd and elicit allusion for the beginning of distaff jazz sonnets.In Ba rrett cooks revision of this scene, the desiring fe mannish converseer assumes the position of epic hero. Pulled a counselling from destructive, corrupting thoughts of death, she engages with the emotional risks of sleep with when the conditions expect to exhilarate her as much as her dear thus the speaker is both the subject and object of warmth, revising without entirely reversing the circumstantially tradition in which the charr is a silent object of admiration. This allusion to homers epic, as rise up as the heroic sonnet form, subtly suggests that there is something brave and heroic most this romantic engagement.Fate is symbolized as a woman constantly turning. Her hair had to be seebed enchantment he was face you. Allusion to a A pip-squeakrens game. The sestets is based on a childrens game of the time in which mavin child would creep up behind another, grab her hair and ask Guess who it is? The poet compargons travel in love to this game. She suggests th an when the strange contact (of love) fictioni beefy drew me backwards by the hair, she assumed that it was death that was clutch her (her pessimistic expectation). Mystic Shape (line 10) suggests something dim and possibly sinister. In line 12 A voice said in mastery while I strove suggests the power of her raw linings and her attempts to resist them beca social occasion she fe ard them. Silver answer-color imagery-love has found her only isnt quite gold yet. She tail assembly while she is Joyful to find love she is wary of it. Silver to a fault represents purity, so perhaps the answer of love is pure and saucer-eyed as throw out witnessed by means of the phthisis of monosyllables Not Death entirely Love Rang-connotative of espousal doorbells or announcements.Loud volume. Has it awoken her from her melancholy and sadness? Rang is in any case in present tense to cross-file her awakening to love and Joy, as inappropriate to the past tense sung Wished Sung, Voice,Ra ng -the learn is auditory. Why? Sirens call? Has she subverted this? She is like the men lead to their death? The dangers of love? perchance she only under ties love when she hears it from someone else, she herself give the bouncenot word it because of her isolated existence. Bells are commonly interpretive program of Joy and freedom.The shape of the bell is well-nigh related to the vault of HEAVEN. A bells dolorous motion dejection represent the extremes of good and evil death and immortality. Its sound is a symbol of creative power, but can in any case be a call to arms. Is also phallic in some senses, a bell and handle = a vulva and a phallus. Embodiment of virginity, unmarried women lard themselves with bells. The use of range reference in lines 13 & 14 dramatists her surprise. The ellipsis in line 14 creates suspense ahead the final antithesis of Not Death, but Love. Which highlights the great pitch in her outlook on life from the second quatrain. Volta Browning p lays with the venerable form because shes much intent on meaning rather than staying with form. Goes into 9th line in sestets. Provides a Volta in line 13 after the caesura but there. Ellipsis. The function of these is to render that she is reserved and reticent further roughly(predicate) bosom love due to her societal constraints which ac acquaintance patriarchal power structure, hitarradiddle of illness and tragedy, feels unworthy and mistrusts herself.Sense of Self-she is aware of her limitations and cleverly questions and quarrels those through her poetry. Classical Elements in Poem in advance(p) Elements of Poem Patriarchal Rhyme escape Theocratic Antique tongue Hair-allusion to Homers Iliad epic The drama of death and love evokes uncorrupted drama and mythology, figures such as Orpheus and Eurydice and the psychogenic fugue of fate. Can read her poems as a version of the silent, suffering power little womanUsurps manful conventions-shes no longer silent but eloq uent Uses her structure to infer nominal head from stasis to an opening up of emotions Cleverly invokes intimateity and desire in a strict patriarchal society Transforms ritual of identity-sonnet is about (values debate about identity within context of conformity) She is aware of her limitations and cleverly challenges them passim her poetry She is reserved and reticent about embracing love due to her societal constraints patriarchal power Elizabeth Barrett Browning sonnet 13 Theme The dominant vagary and tone of this sonnet seems to be unbelief indecision bout whether the poet/persona can trust her sports fan and whether she can reign the speciality of her own feelings. This poem is about reflux being unable to speak or pack her love to Robert Browning, however, she senselessly creates a work of art to declares her love. She declares herself as a poet springr which exit then be her gift to Robert. She isnt ready to run love yet. She ordain declare it when she is r eady. The female voice instead of the traditional male voice.Unlike the traditional depiction of a woman in Patriarchs poetry-she is not silent. She poses and answers the heterocyclic question, And swag though have me fashion into speech/the love I bear thee, purpose words enough She adopts the Patrician sonnet style. She has instruction over her own silence, wondering(a) the validity of words and because the sonnet form itself. Paradox-this poem is about her not being able to move on yet she communicates with Robert Browning through this poem. She does not make a Volta in lines 8 or 9 which shows her determination to express her uncertainty about revealing her feelings to Robber Browning. The sonnet.This is contemplative of the conversational style of the allowters and also emends the reader that the sonnet is part of a sequence of ideas. *The use of the obsolete forms and wilt suggests that the question whitethorn be a device, as use in the sonnets of Shakespeare and th e metaphysical poets, to introduce her ideas dramatically, rather than a reaction to a real request from Robert. batch the great mullein out where the words are rough/ between our faces, to cast a light on each?.. The woolly mullein and light here can symbol illumination, exposure or disclosure and hence the revelation of their love to others, which ebb away is white-lipped of as it will allow them to be criticized by others. In these lines EBB is also creating a drama of epic significance. The flame torches allude to authorized drama.She is also the one in control as she is the torch bearer, which again subverts the traditional notion of the unassertive woman in Patriarchal poetry. The metaphor where the words are rough suggests the immaterial forces that make it difficult to her express her love publicly, possibly a reference to her fathers opposition. I drop it at thy feet. Cleverly denounces her preceding(prenominal) image of power and control by submitting humbly to him. The use of the verb drop suggests her inability to effectively be a torchbearer and wherefore she reveals to him that she in unable to effectively communicate her love to him in her writing, l cannot get wind my hand to hold my spirit so far off/From myself.. Me. The high sensory system reflects her inability to do so. Nay, -let the silence of my womanhood/Commend my woman-love to thy belief- Cleverly adopts the role of a virtuous Victorian woman who until the allude of marriage will not address and mustiness remain a mystery. The starting line word of the sestets Nay (No) does not introduce a Volta (turn) in this case. Instead it emphasizes her determination not to declare her love, reinforcing the second quatrain. And that I stand union, however wooed. thither is a good-natured play on contrasting words here with the W sound which emphasizes the paradoxical nature of her situation. She is in love but cannot admit it, however, cleverly explores and subscribes her e motions of uncertainty to Robert through her poetry.She urges her lover to assume that she is following the conventions of genteel love (suggested by the phrase woman-love and the archaic word wooed), in which the woman was expected to pretend disinterest as a sign of modesty and a management to encourage her lover to more profuse protestation of his love. (This links to the archaic forms in the first quatrain. ) Here, the verb rending is powerful and sexual. Her superficial unresponsiveness conceals deeply felt passion. The image of being ravished is suggested in the metaphor of her life as a garment being torn apart. The superlative most coupled with the rhyming and long sounding dauntless, voiceless reveals the amount of cordial and emotional strength needed by EBB to guard her feelings.She again creates the classical image of woman. She is heroic and strong in heartache. Lest one touch of this heart convey its heartache. The singular One touch conveys the powerful brevity of tenderness and instantaneous consequent pic of revealing her love. Should she reveal her love, she will be open to grief, the grief that go ins with love and happiness. It whitethorn also be personal grief due to the loss of her brother as well as the social grief that comes as a result of the restrictions put on women during her time. Revealing her love will make her vulnerable in more ways and will open up a plethora of emotions for her. Admitting love.The pronouns turn from male thou and thee to female to I and myself. Me to neutral this. This could reveal the abut in which she constructs a hybrid gender for herself which allows her to escape patriarchal constraints and usurp manful conventions (see below). The drama is that this is a woman harangue as a lover to a lover, about the nature of love poetry. The tension is on the nature of Woman-love and the paradox is that her traditional silence has become powerful eloquence. Part of the challenge is that EBB works wit h cross fecundation and paradoxes about hybrid gender , as in her poems o George Sand, that large-brained woman and beneficent man.While she usurps masculine conventions, authority and eloquence she also insists that she retains a tragic identity as the always union and enduring woman, the lover who cannot admit love, and in that way suffers love that in turn leads to sadness. Intellectualism and paradox are sure as shooting part of her strategy and essential to the emotional power of the sonnet. Elizabeth Barrett Browning sonnet 14 In this poem EBB has trustworthy her suitors love, but now makes demands regarding the nature of that love. She urges her lover to love her not for any particular(a) tenableness, but simply because he loves her for loves rice beer only. She argues that if there is a particular reason for loving someone, then a form in circumstances can draw the reason and destroy the love.One interesting indication is that she is cleverly This could be validated with the position that love is retell nine times in the poem. If thou must love me, let it be for enough/Except for loves pursuit only. The opening line is very dramatic and is addressed straightaway to the lover in the archaic second person (thou). She tells him If you must love me, let it be for cypher. The high modality of the auxiliary verb must may be playfully suggesting that she does not really deprivation him to love her or that she cannot believe that he would actually want to (a sign of her sense of inferiority). Like praise 13 she also begins with the conjunction if which creates a conversational tone. The idea of loving her for nothing seems strange until we read line 2. (I. E. He power of the idea is created by the enjambment, creating a pause before the qualifying condition except). Do not hypothecate/ I love her for her smile.. Re look.. Her way Of speaking gently.. for a trick of thought/ That falls in well with mine, and Cortes brought/ A sense of pleas ant ease on such as day- EBB uses the self-assertive voice and listing of established attributes that are admired in women to warn Robert not to love her for these superficial qualities as they are subject to turn. Ellipsis is utilise in these lines to suggest alternates that he might claim. (Cortes certainly) For these things in themselves devout, may/Be changed, or change for thee,.. ND love so wrought,/whitethorn be inwrought so. Here, EBB explains why she does not want IM to love her in these ways because these things may change, destroying the love. In using the contrast of opposites Wrought/inwrought EBB highlights how considerably love may come undo when it is based on transient qualities, as easily and simply as adding a small prefix to a word that resonates with work and effort. The word belove in line 7 shows that she really loves him, dispelling any doubt that may have been created by line 1 . She has not employ this word before to address him in previous poems for news report. Neither love me for / affaire own dear pity wiping my cheeks teetotal For one might well depart to weep, who bore/Thy comfort long, and lose love thereby- The idea in lines 9 12 is that he should not love her because he pities her unhappiness, because his love would make her happy, so he could no longer pity her, and therefore, no longer love her. The exclamatory shows that she is horrify of being pitied. But love me for loves interest, that perpetually/ Thou Mays love on through loves eternity. The poem ends with a clear and direct use of the authoritative mood to furiousness her main idea love me for loves sake. She repeats the words of line 2, avian explained why she make the opening statement. Not be affected by changing circumstances, further reinforcing the poets main idea.In cost of the sonnet form, EBB has now moved away from the one- half(a) rhymes in her sestets to full rhyme for, bore evermore and dry, thereby. However, she utilities half rhym e in ending with eternity. This serves to accent mark the singularity of the word and the longevity of their love (made up of four syllables and the longest sounding word in the poem) and hence the uniqueness of their love if it isnt based on go up her and loving her as a conventional woman. F a woman in Patriarchal poetry-she is not silent. She is in control and makes demands of Robert Borrowing love. Elizabeth Barrett Browning Sonnet 21 The tone of this sonnet is dramatically contrasting from the three previous ones entrap for study.It is more exuberant (excited, high-spirited), clearly shown by the moment of exclamations. This might suggest that her doubts about the authenticity of Robbers love are decreasing and she is beginning to enjoy their relationship. (One study guide refers to her pleasance, another to her thrill. ) An alternative development might be that there is a sense of desperation in her upthrust that she is urging him to keep telling her that he loves her so she can overcome her doubts. at that place is evidence in the poem to disengage either approach, so you must make your own Judgment. In lines 1 -6 she urges her beloved to keep telling her that he loves her.There is a typical dramatic opening, addressing her lover directly Beloved and using repetition again and yet again. The repeated use of exclamatory in line 6 and 7 line create a sense of exuberance. The foregrounding of the adjectival Beloved may reveal an acceptance of her feelings towards Robert Browning, as she has now placed the term f endearment at the start of the poem (in contrast to Sonnet 14). Mores it relegates him to the object of the poem and thus EBB again subverts the traditional Patriarchal sonnet which had the woman as the object. EBB also subverts the form by taking control through the use of the imperative tone. She compares his repeated declarations of his love to the song of the cuckoo (cuckoo-song & cuckoo-strain).This razz is heard very frequently in spring in England, and many an(prenominal) mass get demented of its monotonous calling. She suggests that while people might get sick of hearing the cuckoo, it should be welcomed because spring Anton come without it. In the same way, she cannot experience love without him Remember, never to the hill and plain/ vale & wood, without her cuckoo-strain. Hills were the first manifestation of the creation of the world, rest high enough to be set away from primeval chaos, but lacking the majestic size of mountains. Biblical allusion Isaiah 404 Every valley shall be raised, and every mountain and hill made low, the rough ground shall become level, the upset places a plain.This suggests how everything will be recognise and perfect when he repeats his love for her. Plains-symbol of property and boundless earth. Horizontal and opposed to the unsloped hill. vale-symbolic complement of a mountain. Egg yin (valley) and yang (Mountain). commonly a symbol of fertility and life. Valley i s also a Biblical allusion to sing 23 scour though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for you are with me your rod and your staff, they comfort me (lots of sexual connotations here ) Wood- Symbolizes superhuman wisdom and knowledge. The carpenter uses to a faultls symbolic of the divine power of saving tramp out of chaos.Through the use of these cancel and Biblical symbols. EBB suggests that they will not find perfection, complementing unity or order in their love without him repeating he loves her. Note the personification of sweet restrict in all her green completed to omen a fresh start/ changeover/growth. Green is also the color of the Goddess of love Aphrodite who was born from a green sea-so unreal allusion. In lines 7 9 she admits to doubts about his love. darkness, doubtful spirit, doubts distressingness and Cry have powerful negative connotations, suggesting that the serve up of deciding whether he really loves her has been very painful. Are these doubts in the past or the present? The use of ellipsis in line 9 suggests hesitation, making the use of the imperative (Cry .. Speak seem a little desperate. In lines 9- 11 the rhetorical question suggests renewed confidence. She argues that just as you cannot have too many stars or too many flowers, so you cannot say l love you too often. This continues the association of his love with positive aspects of nature begun in line 6. Stars are symbols of immortal and constancy much like their love. Flowers in contrast are transitory (they dont live forever). EBB again uses humbly to show how their love whilst mortal, can remain eternal. In lines 12 13 she again uses the imperative mood, combined with repetition to urge him to continue to say he loves her. Toll metaphorically compares declaring his love to ringing a bell and silver utterance has positive connotations. (Note that she used silver answer in Sonnet 1) We discussed silver as being less precious than gold and therefore their love whilst still precious is more real rather than ideal. The bell is a symbol of Joy and freedom and in some senses is also phallic- so there are sexual connotations here again. In line 13 the dash introduces a change of idea, and a change to a more serious tone. While she enjoys hearing him say that he loves her, she also wants him to love her in deep and lasting love. In terms of the sonnet form, this is the first sonnet for study that does not employ half rhyme in the sestets.Thus the full rhyme could think of her growing confidence in their love. Elizabeth Barrett Browning Sonnet 22 The tone of this sonnet is very different to that of Sonnet XIX. It is highly serious but also confident, suggesting that the poet is abruptly sure of the truth of what she is saying. EBB suggests that their love can take them into a spiritual realm away from earthly concerns, but then rejects this. She prefers them to remain earthly lovers, even though she recognizes that ph ysical love is not permanent because it cannot overcome death. She argues that nothing in life can harm them because they love each other. There is also a sense of equality in this poem. There is no masculine or feminine aspect.Shes become a man/woman voice (note the allusions to masculine mythological figures. Angels are gender neutral). In this sonnet the poet uses the first person plural (we / us / our). This is a velveteen from the previous ones set for study, in which she used the first and second person singular. The change reflects her growing certainty that they truly love each other. In the octave she imagines their souls facing each other in silence, acquiring closer together until their lengthening move sort out into fire. This image seems to refer to their deaths, when their physical bodies will be destroyed and their souls will escape to heaven together. This interpretation is back up by the reference to angels.It links to the wish expressed in Sonnet xiv to be lov ed through loves eternity. and in Sonnet XIX to be loved with his soul. The image also has overtones of the mythical phoenix, a bird that burns itself to ashes and comes forth with new life (it is a symbol of resurrection) suggesting the intensity of the love has destroyed her old self and renewed her. Until their lengthening wings break into fire. Here we have the use of classical/ mythological allusion to Circus who flew to close to the sun and had his wings melt. Could this suggest that their love is so passionate it could be dangerous? onrush is also a symbol for knowledge and wisdom and again refers to the classical story of