Monday, September 30, 2019

3G network based security threats Essay

The key threats for 3G networks in perspective of integration of networks are: Wireless LAN customer who does not have access to 3G networks get access to 3G services without subscription. WLAN user gains access to 3G network and creates issues such as Denial of Service WLAN user gains access to 3G network and uses impersonation for using the service but charging other customers. Manipulation of charging when services like calls are transferred from one network to another. Application and Data related threats. Collection of login details and personal details that are transmitted over the network by using sniffing tools and mechanisms, especially when sufficient transport security is not set. Manipulation of information used for user authentication or service access to gain access to unauthorised services or manipulation of billing. Extracts personal information that are used at other places such as credit card information. Obtain information about user such as permanent identity in the network. Virus attacks from WLAN devices to other devices in the network Trojans and malicious software passed from one end-device to another. For volume based charging model, a rogue partner can flood the user with garbage packets to increase the invoiced amount. Malicious programs on the user terminal that increases the traffic to certain sites or content to illegally increase the traffic. Security Considerations for 3G-WLAN Integrated Networks. The security framework for 3G-WLAN integrated networks consists of various layers. Each security layer is independent of the other layers. However, there needs to be an overall security scheme that connects all the security requirements together. Also, since some of the vulnerabilities can happen at multiple layers, a holistic approach and framework is required to address all the risks of the special network. Authentication security at the user terminal. The authentication scheme in the case of 3G-WLAN should be based on a challenge response protocol similar to the existing mobile communication authentication scheme. This requires that the authentication details in the user terminal to be stored securely on UICC or SIM card. This should support mutual authentication and security mechanisms such EAP. Signalling and User Data Security. The subscriber needs to have the same level of security as the mobile access that is specified for the 3G networks. This means that the WLAN authentication and re-authentication mechanisms must be at the same levels as for 3G USIM based access. It needs to support the maintaining session key verification and maintenance. Also the 3G systems should provide the required keys with sufficient length and levels of entropy that are required by the WLAN subsystem. WLAN key agreement, distribution and authentication mechanism should be secure against any attacks by middlemen. The WLAN access technology between the user equipment and the access point/ network should be able to utilise the generated session keying material to ensure the integrity of the connection for authentication. Privacy of User Identity. The keys used by 3G AAA function that are used for the generation of temporary identities that is used for the communication between the network element and the user terminal should not be possible to recover. If it is possible to retrieve the keys, the permanent identity can be derived from any of the temporary identities. Also it should be possible to mask the different temporary identities corresponding to the permanent identity.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Aggression and gender on sports and exercise psychology

Aggression in sports can be looked at from different perspectives like hostile aggression or violence which is intended to harm someone or psychologically, or instrumental aggression with a goal twin and not to harm and assertive aggression which is a legitimate force with no intent to harm.In some cases sports and exercises are seen as means of controlling aggression in the society. Some argue that sport allows someone to pen up their aggression in an assertive manner. This notion however creates an argument on whether violence in the society is controlled by sports or it’s the sports that facilitate more violence (Weinberg, & Gould 2007).Various theories can be used to explain the nature of aggression in sports and exercises: the instinct/ biological theory which is bent on people are born aggressive which is not believed anymore, the frustration drive theory where one commits an act of aggression as a release, the revised frustration concept which determines if one will rep eat that behaviour for example, the reaction of a coach toward your aggressive behaviour and social learning theory which involves reinforcement and influence and repeating actions that one sees in sports (Weinberg, & Gould 2007).There are various factors that promote aggression in sports and exercise like heat when temperature exceeds the optimal, loud noise and crowding like when riots occur. Psychological factors like low scoring sports and alcohol which can impair the judgement and induce violence.Other key factors include sociological factors like hooliganism and the media. Sport related factors like point spread, playing at home or away, a win or a loss and the standings of the game or sport (Weinberg, & Gould 2007).Aggressive acts are highly motivated, have tremendous release of physical energy and people not afraid of failure or getting hurt. Acts of aggression take place when official appear biased in low scoring games, fans unrealistic expectations of the team, early fouli ng game, player frustration, strong fan attachment to teams, where standings or records are highly different, losing, pain, embarrassment and playing poorly or unusual excitement when one cannot calm (Weinberg, & Gould 2007).There are various recommendations to reduce aggression in sports. The management should deal with alcohol at sporting events, choose calmer colors and make sports events family oriented. The media can help people approach sports in a more humanistic way.Coaches should promote sportsmanship while the officials need to be objective and change the rules of punishments. Players and fans should have individual responsibility (Weinberg, & Gould 2007).On the gender aspect the tendency for men to manifest a higher level of aggressiveness than men is quite evident. In connection to that men perceive aggression in sports to be more legitimate than men. In most cases in sports that are considered male oriented men display more aggression.Generally women tend to be less inv olved in violent or aggressive sports and exercises. Sports whose officials are female also tend to record less cases of aggression than those officiated by men. Again in most games gender has displayed impacts on instrumental aggression because men display more instrumental aggressive acts than females especially in those games are masculine characteristic (Weinberg, & Gould 2007).In other studies men have displayed more stereotypes in officiating than women, for example they tend to penalize women more than men especially in the male dominated sports.In conclusion aggression and gender greatly influence sports and exercise psychology. Gender also influences aggression in some sports.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Oral presentation on golf Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Oral presentation on golf - Essay Example Thank you. Golf is a game requiring mastery in a variety of areas for success. There might be different ways to success but it should be understood that those players who show high and stable results have reached heights in the areas of mechanics, physical, nutritional, and mental. Mechanics is the development of the proper biomechanics of the golf swing. Physical entails developing the body around the golf swing. Nutrition incorporates fueling the body for proper success on the golf course. Mental is the development of the correct mind set to excel at the game of golf. Often the golfer tends to focus only upon the development of the golf swing through mastery of biomechanics of the golf swing. It is understandable why golfers spend an in ornate amount of this part of developing their golf game: developing the biomechanics of the golf swing requires the player to correctly master each phase of the golf swing (these phases are address, backswing, transition, downswing, and follow through). What the beginners at times fail to recognize is that additional categories exist requiring development to create the optimal golf swing. If ignored, these aspects can negatively affect the development of the golf swing and golf game. The next category requiring development within the golfer is categorized as physical.

Friday, September 27, 2019

The Main Factors Which Influence Customer Buying Decision Essay

The Main Factors Which Influence Customer Buying Decision - Essay Example A fall in the price of a product will result to an increase in the quantity of a product purchased, however these depends on the price elasticity of a product. If a product is price elastic and this means that the price elasticity of the good is more than one, then the products demand will rise at a greater proportion than the rise in price. If the price elasticity of a product is less than one then the demand for the product will not rise at a greater proportion than the price. 1 The price of substitutes also play a major role in determining the consumers purchasing behaviour, in a situation where a substitute of a product is less expensive, then the consumer will purchase the substitute example margarine and butter are substitutes, if the price of butter goes up then the consumer will purchase margarine. Under the price of a product we will also consider the risk associated with buying a certain product, the more expensive a product is the higher the risk and the higher the consequ ences of making the wrong decision, buyers will also consider the scrap value of and mostly this is associated with vehicle and machinery product, products with very high prices and low scrap value will be less preferred. Another consideration is the price of the complimentary good, if the price of the complementary good is hi... tary good, if the price of the complementary good is high then a consumer will be less likely to purchase the product, a good example is petroleum products and vehicles, if the price of petroleum products is too high then the consumer will less be likely to purchase a vehicle, this can associated with the running cost of the product to be purchased will be high and therefore a rational consumer will not purchase the product with high running cost.2 Future expectations about changes in prices will also influence the buying decisions of consumers, if consumers expect a rise in price in the future for a certain product then they will tend to purchase that good in large quantities to avoid high prices of the product in the future, example if a consumer expects the price level of sugar to rise in the near future then he will purchase the sugar in large quantities today to avoid the future rise in price. Therefore the price of a product is a factor that influences the consumer buying decision, the consumer will purchase goods rationally to optimise on his real income and also maximise his utility, prices of substitute and complementary goods play a role in consumers decision making on what to buy and in what quantity.3 INCOME: Income is also another major factor that influence the buying decisions of consumers, the consumers disposable income play a major role in determining what to buy and in what quantities, however this depends on the income elasticity of a certain product, if the consumers disposable income increases and that the income elasticity of demand for that good is greater than one then the proportional rise in the demand for t hat product is greater than the rise in income levels.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Unit IV Assessment#2 Sick Building Syndrome Essay

Unit IV Assessment#2 Sick Building Syndrome - Essay Example The agents coagulate in the rooftops and walls and people end up inhaling the particles in them (Wargocki et al., 2000; pg. 72). The biological contaminants inhibit respiratory activities thus causing SBS. SBS has been associated with several symptoms. The major symptom is a feeling of acute discomfort that results from throat, nose, and eye irritation, headaches, sensitivity to stenches, dizziness, fatigue, dry and/or itchy skin, and inability to concentrate. The occupants also have trouble in breathing, an inordinate feeling of weariness and tiredness. These symptoms fluctuate from person to person depending on the degree of exposure to the contaminants and the type of SBS (whether type 1 or type 2) (Gurjar et al., 2010; pg. 121). Though the symptoms are increasingly becoming prevalent due to occupants spending most of their time indoors, no medication for SBS has been discovered. The long lasting solution to SBS is improving the building techniques to improve structures and make them less problematic (Wargocki et al., 2000; pg. 104). This is attained by ensuring that buildings are fitted with ventilators and chimneys that absorb the contaminants and allow inflow of fresh air. The number and efficiency of HVAC ventilations should be improved. However, the short term and immediate solution to SBS is leaving the building (Gurjar et al., 2010; pg. 120). Those affected by SBS report feeling better after leaving the building, to acquire fresh air. Gurjar,  B.  R., Molina,  L.  T., & Ojha,  C.  S. (2010).  Air pollution: Health and environmental impacts. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Retrieved from

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Commerce as the Transfer of Goods and Services Coursework

Commerce as the Transfer of Goods and Services - Coursework Example The arena for making agreements prior to sealing of a transaction varies. The buyer and seller may meet face to face, they can communicate through the telephone or they can do that through the web commonly known as the interment. When such agreements are reached over the internet followed by the transaction getting sealed (buyer gets commodities bought delivered to him and the seller gets paid by the buyer), then this is termed as e-commerce or e-business. Just like in any business, there have been instances of fraud in e-commerce. If one is able to commit fraud when the transaction is conducted face to face, how much more is this possible when business is conducted over the web Most businessmen have been defrauded and buyers conned. This led to the need for beefing up security as far as e-commerce is concerned. The security function in the websites belonging to buyers has been the very essence of doing business. One needs to verify the validity of the seller and the buyer needs to pay beforehand. Even though the amount of security has increased in the recent years, the hackers keep on being creative by the day thus also requiring innovation as far as the security function of e-commerce is concerned. E-commerce is picking up as a popular way of doing business not only on the retail section but also the banking section. It entails doing business over the web in which the seller and the buyer are both connected via a web browser. Since anything that deals with the computer and the web to be precise is prone to hacking, spying, sabotage etc, it is important that a security component is emphasized when using the web. This security function becomes mandatory when using the web for business. However, the security needs to be upheld to a given degree which is of dual function in that it doesn't impede on the efficiency of transactions and still it doesn't leave obvious holes to the hackers' advantage. The seller's website needs to be well protected and secure against fraudsters and hackers but at the same time, the security components should not suffocate the website to a level that the efficiency of business transactions is impeded on. The buyer has the obligation to identify his/her s ecurity objectives: there is need to know what it is that the seller needs to protect and what should be left open with considerable trust to enhance business transactions. As much as some reasonable degree of trust is necessary for conducting business but too much trust is dangerous to the wellbeing of the very business that you fight to enhance through trust. Therefore, once the seller has identified what to protect and what not to, he has successfully defined his security objectives and this help does create a security policy which must be implemented.  

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Hum final Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1

Hum final - Essay Example As such, let us look into one of the more intriguing argument pertinent to the existence of God. St. Anselm is one of the leading theologian-philosopher during the medieval period. He provided us with one of the many versions of the ontological argument for the existence of God. According to Anselm, ‘God is the greatest conceivable being.’ And since God is the greatest conceivable being, therefore God exists. Now, one may not agree right away with him but let us try to clarify some point made by St. Anselm. Two things can be inferred from the argument. First, the human mind is capable of conceiving the greatest being. That to say, that it is only the human mind that has the capability and the capacity to recognize the greatest being. Second, the moment that the greatest being is conceived, it exists. At the onset it seems that St. Anselm seems to jump from mental conception of a being to its actual existence. But is he guilty of it? No! For St. Anselm, the actual existence is greater than mental existence so much so that â€Å"if the greatest conceivable is not ac tual, it is not the greatest conceivable being† (Grave 32) As such, at the core of his argument is the truism that existence is better and that understanding this is the greatest key to ‘defining’ God. What is existence then? If we are going to look at Realism, in its simplest form, it affirms the claim that X (a thing) exists at a given place Y in time Z. This is basically similar with axiom of location which purports the idea that a thing if it is real, exists at least on one location, and at most one location. It attests to the reality of matter, thus affirming materialism or the physical body of objects. As such, it is not surprising that naturalism basically supports this strand of interpretation in lieu of existence. On the other hand, another way of understanding existence is via apprehension of the universals or forms or ideas and this is termed as

Monday, September 23, 2019

Manfold Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Manfold Case Study - Essay Example The plastic airbeds were a huge success and formed about 12.3 % of the company’s sales (Van den 1). However, in 2007, Joseph, who was the founder wanted to retire from business and in connection to this, he wanted to sell his shares that were about 68 % to Mitchell & Meyer, which is an American equipment manufacturer. It is at this point that the conflict of interest arose between the key players in the Manfold Toy Company. Conflict of interest occurs in work environment when a person is in a place where they can be influenced. The influence can be because of personal interest that an individual has on something. A conflict of interest can be because someone is avoiding personal disadvantage, or it can be because someone wants to take advantage of a particular situation. There are three different types of conflict of interest. The first one is the actual conflict of interest; this is where an employee is in a position to be influenced by their own personal interest when carrying out their responsibilities. The second one is perceived conflict of interest, in this case the employee appears to be influenced by their private interest when doing their job. Finally, is the potential conflict of interest, in this case the employee is in a place where they may influenced in the future by their private desires when carrying out their work. In the case of study there are various conflict of interests, for example, Fred who was an independent non-executive director (INED). He was also the chairman of the audit committee is in a position where his job seems to put him in a conflicting of interest with his boss; Joseph, who is also the founder of the company. Given that Joseph have told him about his intention of selling the business to Mitchell and Meyer Company. However, he knows that Yee Exports that are the sole distributor of Manfold Toy Company in New Zealand and Australia is almost becoming bankrupt. However, he is not sure about

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Wieland Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Wieland - Essay Example rine Pleyel and because they were very rich the family settles into a very expensive estate where Clara stays on her own house which was on the ground floor (Brockden 27). Unfortunately, Wieland dreams that God is commanding him to murder his wife and children. In addition, in his thoughts, he starts to argue within himself that he also needs to murder his sister as a form of sacrifice, just the way Abraham in the bible did (Brockden 38). In the bible, Abraham was told by God to sacrifice his son, but then when he was just about doing it, a sheep appeared. Wieland can be seen as an extremist who will do anything to show God that he has faith in Him. Clara is helped by neighbors who were alerted by a lot of noise from the house and then his brother is taken to prison (Brockden 45). Carwin who was a stranger admits that he is a spritualist and is responsible for the strange voices the family has been hearing. He explains that he was attracted to Clara and therefore because of jealousy he wanted to turn Playel against her (Brackden 70). In the contrast, Carwin distances himself with the voice Wieland has been hearing which was commanding him to murder his family (Brackden 90). After several days, Wieland escaped from prison to finish his mission but because of Carwin love for Clara he helps her by speaking to Wieland as God (Brackden 97). This time he told Theodre that he had been deceived. When he heard the voice he then realized that he had sinned and that he was not worthy before God, therefore he takes his own life (Brackden 110). The parallel between Wieland and a seduction novel is very critical to its meaning in that Wieland can be seen as a cautionary tale on the dangers of religious extremists. The way the Wieland men were behaving just shows how infuriated they are because a normal person should not behave like that. The father and the sons are also seen not to be mentally stable (Brackden 31). One of the core values of every family is love, therefore if a

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Violence In Youth Culture Essay Example for Free

Violence In Youth Culture Essay The youth is the future of any nation. Every young person has the potential to lead towards the detriment of himself and others as well as towards the beneficial aspects. The life of violence is expectedly, a personal choice; but this choice oftentimes is impacted by social structure and individuality. For some who have lived the life of violence all their lives, option is not within their fate, so to speak. It is their byword most of the time that â€Å"life has few if not, no choices at all† for people like them. Crime, especially committed by the youth, comprises a major, escalating portion of the nation’s criminal problem. Whats more, majority of adult offenders in the country’s jails grew up from child and adolescent life of criminal behavior. In addition, many of the adults in prison today began their criminal careers as youths and teenagers. . Consequently, whatever approaches the government seeks to implement in order to curb juvenile delinquency must touch every segment of society that has bearing, in any way, upon children (Source:www. cato. org/testimony/ct-wc67. html). A lot of studies on demographical statistics have been made to figure out the problem of juvenile delinquency. As a result of these studies, awareness is achieved as to what to do or how to deal with this rising problem of youth in general. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) formed a Study Group on very young offenders to look at the special case of children from ages 13 down and examine the incidence and the frequency of crimes committed by this particular age group. According to their study, the number is rising of children committing crimes based on the record of the juvenile justice system; i. e. according to court caseloads. Considering their age (at a very young age of 13 – below), one would automatically understand the odds of these children committing more crimes as they pass through adolescence into adulthood) (Source: Organization of African Unity and UNICEF, â€Å"Africa’s children, Africa’s future†, a background sectoral paper prepared for the OAU International Conference on Assistance to African Children, Dakar, 25-27 November 1992, Accessed:www. cato. org/testimony/ct-wc67. html, Dec. 3, 2006). A. Demographics Latest statistics show, as U. S. Department of Justice’s has done in their survey, youth offenders with age ranging from 7 to 12 years, are becoming more and more involved with the juvenile justice system. Meaning, â€Å"criminals† within this age group are increasing. One in ten juvenile arrests involves kids under thirteen years old. Offenses range from arson, rape, homicide, aggravated assault, robbery, to not so serious but persistent disruptive behavior such as truancy and incorrigibility. These children â€Å"have a two to threefold greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic offenders† (OJJDP, Mar. 2003). Of course, if these children are not given enough attention and not dealt with effectively, by the authorities (including, first of all, their parents), the likelihood is that they will be spending their future years, in a more prone condition, to commit the same crime/s repeatedly (given the opportunity), as they had already committed the same in the past. They will be â€Å"in it† for the long haul. When this happens, the result will not be a good prospect for the citizenry of the nation, and even more for the parents. Large funds will be siphoned from educational system, child welfare system, the justice system, mental health agencies, just to alleviate this worsening problem. Added to this dismal prospect, is the continuing threat to public safety and property (Loeber and Farrington, 2001). B. Age and Crimes Committed Survey tells us that among U. S. penitentiaries, it’s very common to see very young children behind the bars (Snyder, 2001). The FBI has its own collected data under its branch Uniform Crime Reporting Program. The data shows that, all in all, law enforcement agencies in 1997 have recorded arrests of children less than thirteen years of age, and they are approximated at about 253,000 arrests (Snyder and Sickmund, 1999). And of these arrests, ten percent are violations such as running away from home, curfew violations, and drunkenness violations. The FBI data also shows that nine percent of these overall arrests (253,000) of delinquent children are youths younger than thirteen. Notwithstanding this overall projection, there is good news: Intervention and prevention programs are being made to curb this increasing problem on child delinquency. These programs are seen to produce positive results as they are addressing the factors that constitute this whole concern (OJJDP, Mar. 2003). In 1998, OJJDP, in attempt to better comprehend the studies made thus far, convened the Study Group on Very Young Offenders. Their aim was to analyze the existing data so as to be able to address the remaining key issues left untouched in available publications that time. The Study Group members together with some experts on juvenile delinquency and psychopathology (most of them authors) found out that â€Å"some young children engage in very serious antisocial behavior† show by their behavior that they had early delinquency problems. They were able to identify several factors that are, based on their observations, contributing parts to the early onset of the child’s offending (OJJDP, Mar. 2003). The convening of these experts resulted in the completion of The Child Delinquency Bulletin Series in 2001 with grant number 95-JD-FX-0018 which was published subsequently by Sage Publications under the title Child Delinquents: Development Intervention and Service Needs (edited by Rolf Loeber and David P. Farrington). Now, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention encourages all concern – the parents, teachers, and the juvenile justice community to avail and use the information compiled in this book to deal with the needs of youth offenders and proceed to think of ways on how to be more strategic and effective as they implement their steps (OJJDP, Mar. 2003). C. Background (home, childhood, and family) Sociologists, in an attempt to explain and point out the reasons behind delinquency, have concluded that there are connections between specific youth behaviors with the home environment, family background, the neighborhood, associations, and many other aspects that together, or separately affect the formative years of young people’s social environment. Delinquent children usually come from a background of difficult circumstances. Some of them were virtually forced under certain circumstances that leave them no other options but commit certain crimes. Parental alcoholism, poverty, breakdown of family, abusive conditions in the home, death of parents during armed conflicts or drug overdose, and the HIV/AIDS scourge, and etc. are some of the various reasons that can leave children virtually orphaned. One or both parents may be physically present, but because of irresponsibility on their part (if even one of them is addicted to drugs or alcoholic), a child may grow developing certain ways and attitudes that are directly/indirectly caused by the parent/s addiction or drug-related behavior. In this case, true delinquency lies on the parents; and the children are, in a way, orphaned or unaccompanied, and without any means of subsistence which, in the first place, the parents’ fundamental responsibility to provide. Few children, if there are any, survive these disastrous environment. They are first in the line of those who are at greatest risk of falling into juvenile delinquency. According to UNICEF, between 1992 to 2000, children in especially dire conditions of life have increased in number from 80 million (1992) to 150 million (2000) (Source: Organization of African Unity and UNICEF, â€Å"Africa’s children, Africa’s future†, a background sectoral paper prepared for the OAU International Conference on Assistance to African Children, Dakar, 25-27 November 1992, Accessed:www. cato. org/testimony/ct-wc67. html, Dec. 3, 2006). There are behaviors which can be said as normal part of growing up years of children in general. Some even stretched it too far as to say that antisocial behavior may be normal at some stage between childhood and adolescence. It is either just a part of growing up path in which everyone must pass, or if not given proper guidance, antisocial attitudes may become part of a long-term pattern of criminal activity(United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency or The Riyadh Guidelines).. â€Å"Youthful behavior or conduct that does not conform to overall social norms and values is often part of the maturation and growth process and tends to disappear spontaneously in most individuals with the transition to adulthood† says The Riyadh Guidelines. It is quite common to young people, especially in teenage or adolescent years, to have committed or commit some kind of petty offence at some point. But this pattern should not continue into adulthood turning someone into a full pledged criminal (United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency or The Riyadh Guidelines). Guidance and oversight by parents or responsible adults are very important during crucial years of a child. This stage is between childhood to adolescence. Children must be closely monitored and mentored and be guided/assisted between transitional periods. While it is true that delinquency is part and is a common characteristic of immaturity, it is very important to bear in mind that during this period of growth, juveniles (if left alone and unguided) often tend to create stable criminal groups. With this more permanent association, an atmosphere of stability and belongingness begin to impress into young people’s subconscious until it becomes a virtual reality where life for them comes alive (OJJDP, Mar. 2003). Without noticing it as it is typical of any youth to be lacking in prudence, with newly embraced group, a corresponding subculture starts to assimilate them, and before long, they start to engage in activities of adult criminal groups. It is usually after being engaged in criminal activities for an extended period of time with its accompanying consequences (such as ending up in prison or rehabilitation institutions for drug addicts) that delinquents realize they are into a very dangerous zone. They have, in effect, chosen delinquent careers (OJJDP, Mar. 2003). According to available Statistical data in many countries, delinquency is, by and large, a group trend. A large portion of all juvenile violations (between two-thirds and three-quarters) are perpetrated by youths who are members of certain gangs. â€Å"Even those juveniles who commit offences alone are likely to be associated with groups. According to data from the Russian Federation, the rate of criminal activity among juveniles in groups is about three to four times higher than that of adult offenders† † (Venkatesh, 1997). If the subcultural aspect of juvenile group activities is only given the attention it deserves, it will be better understood. The culture being advocated by different juvenile groups is a heterogeneous mix. It is a mixture of predominant values of a certain social class, which are (unfortunately) spread mainly by the entertainment industry unconsciously. It can be values or lifestyle systems which are particularly indigenous to a neighborhood or even to a smaller group. â€Å"Subcultures can be defined as particular lifestyle systems that are developed in groups and are in structurally subordinate positions as a result of pressure exerted by the predominant systems. Subcultures reflect individual and group attempts to solve structural contradictions† † (Venkatesh, 1997). Because juvenile groups exist in a locality, this fact must be taken into consideration. A community is defined by its geographic location, â€Å"by the similarities of social characteristics of its residents, such as membership in a social class or ethnic group† (Venkatesh, 1997). Children who are well taken care of by their parents and are thus adequately supervised are at less odds to be involved in criminal activities. Studies have proven that. Dysfunctional family, on the other hand, which is commonly characterized by regular conflicts, parental negligence, poor communication because of absorption to outside activities by parents, are always assumed to be the breeding ground for delinquents. Children in disadvantaged family settings are usually insecure, have a low view of self, and consequently have fewer opportunities for legitimate employment. They face a higher risk of social exclusion† (Venkatesh, 1997). Because of the breakdown of family institution, the ever increasing rate of single parenting and the many factors that contribute to this disintegration, the family as a unit has been redefined and as a result children are reaping the effects((OJJDP, Mar. 2003). An important assumption here is that, boys coming from the low-income families search for models of masculinity from these gangs. These forms, in a lot of instances, serve as their surrogate family, filling in the void for leadership roles which are supposed to be filled in by their real fathers. Instead of finding what they are looking for in a family, through those substitute groups, what they get is more than what they bargained for: â€Å"cruelty, becoming bully themselves, excitability and anxiety† (OJJDP, Mar. 2003) Conclusion Because family is the true breeding ground for achievement and true success, great importance is now being given for the well-being of this important unit of the community. Children’s achievements and/or performance in school are directly influenced by their parents more than the school itself. The parents’ moral, emotional, and financial capacity are basic for children’s early training: e. g. the acquisition of educational resources depends so much on the parents’ determination to obtain them for the enhancement of their children’s education (Wiig, 2001) . Here now is the immense disparity: young people aged 18 and below, who come from the socio-economically-deprived level most of the time feel excluded because of their disadvantages. Thus, they resort to looking for ways to help this area where they see themselves deprived. Gangs, to them, are easy solutions. Delinquents who are already part of this subcultural group are eager to recruit them. Opportunities are equal to everyone (OJJDP, Mar. 2003). Unlike in school and their family, these have no strict rules to be followed except loyalty to the group. It gives young people esteem when they somehow feel they are the â€Å"rule† in themselves. This is the lure of gangs. It gives the promise of fulfillment to would be delinquents. Popularity, access to the powerful figures on the streets, freedom to express one’s self, as well as easy flow of money (if the gang is also involved in some illegal activities such as drug dealings, which is common in most gangs) are seemingly within grasp of anybody who just have the guts to dare (OJJDP, Mar. 2003). Reference: Griffin, Torbert, and Szymanski, 1998. See J. Hearn, The Violences of Men: How Men Talk about and How Agencies Respond to Men’s Violence to Women (London, Sage, 1998); L. A. Goodman and others, â€Å"Male violence against women†, American Psychologist, vol. 48, No. 10 (1993), pp. 1,054-1,058; and M. P. Koss and others, No Safe Haven: Male Violence Against Women at Home, at Work and in the Community (Washington, American Psychological Association, 1994). Loeber, R. , and Farrington, D. P. , eds. 2001. Child Delinquents: Development, Intervention, and Service Needs. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. OJJDP, Mar. 2003. (The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention is a component of the Office of Justice Programs, which also includes the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office for Victims of Crime.) http://:www. cato. org/testimony/ct- wc67. html.. (Accessed Dec. 2006)J. Flores, Administrator. Snyder, H. N. , and Sickmund, M. 1999. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report. Report. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency prevention. Snyder, H. N. 2001. Epidemiology of official offending. In Child Delinquents: Development, Intervention, and Service Needs, edited by R. Loeber and D. P. Farrington. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. , pp. 25–46. United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency   or The Riyadh Guidelines (Accessed November 2007)J.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Flores, Administrator.

Friday, September 20, 2019

External And Internal Audit Of Zurich

External And Internal Audit Of Zurich The scope of the report is a comprehensive external and internal audit of the company Zurich Insurance, providing a base for formulation of its new 5-year marketing plan. The company, Zurich Financial Services (Zurich Insurance) is a global insurance-based financial services provider, which offers life insurance, non-life insurance, risk management and other related products. Group headquarters are in Zurich, Switzerland, it employs 60,000 people, while its main markets are in Europe and North America. The group operates thought three main units targeting three main segments (Zurich Insurance 2010): General insurance targeting the non-life insurance segment; Global life targeting the life insurance segment; and Farmers that targets the life and non-life segment in US. The analysis in the report identified several key issues of importance for the further activities of the company. Key emerging issues The current external and internal situational impact as provided with the audit identifies several important opportunities for development of the company in the period to come. In line with its current corporate objectives, these directions include: Expansion on emerging insurance market especially the non-life market; Capitalisation on its position at the mature markets for a better positioning in the new segment (ageing population) at the mature markets Improve its operational profit margin; and Placing Corporate Social Responsibility at the core of its strategic positioning reinforcing its brand and working towards decreasing the high level of groups risks. Table of Contents 1.Vision, Mission and Corporate Objectives 4 1.1 Vision 4 1.2 Mission Statement 4 1.3 Corporate Objectives 5 2.Situational Analysis 6 2.1 External Analysis 6 2.1.1.Macroeconomic Analysis-PESTEL 6 2.1.2.Industry Analysis 8 2.1.3. Market Analysis 11 2.1.4. Opportunities and Threats 11 .2. Internal Analysis 12 2.2.1. Value Chain Analysis 14 2.2.2. The Balance Scorecard 15 2.2.3. Core Competences and Capabilities 15 2.2.4. Zurich Insurance Culture Web 16 2.2.5. Identified Strengths and Weaknesses 16 2.3.Summary of the current situation impact- SWOT 17 3.Marketing Objectives Five year plan 20 4.Marketing Strategies 21 6. Marketing Implementation 7Ps 22 7. Budgetary Requirements 23 8. Gantt 25 Vision, Mission and Corporate Objectives The concept of vision and mission comes from the influence of the rationalists approaches towards strategy promoted by Chandler and Ansoff and the famous hierarchy of plans (Linstead 2004, p. 501). Within the hierarchy of plans, there are four levels of strategy: enterprise, corporate, business and functional plans, while at the top of the pyramid is the enterprise strategy. The enterprise strategy is the broadest level of strategy that articulates the role of the business entity in the society. Its main aim is to answer two questions why does the company exist and what does it serve for the society. In contemporary management language it seeks to provide the Mission and the Vision of the company as a whole. 1.1 Vision The Zurich Way or the Zurich vision is to become the best global insurer as defined by its customers, its shareholders and its people (Zurich Insurance 2010) in serving its three target segments. 1.2 Mission Statement Zurichs mission is to deliver help when it matters so that customers feel valued and taken care of (TheTimes100 2010, p121) is reflected in its comprehensive range of general and life insurance products and services accustomed to the needs of all of its customers, accompanied with an in-depth customer knowledge, a global network and local expertise, high-quality service and ease of doing business, backed by strong capital and talented employees (Zurich Insurance 2010). 1.3 Corporate Objectives According to Linstead (2004, p. 502) ,the corporate objectives should be specific, realistic considering the internal and external environment, achievable with a reasonable amount of effort, and must reflect the expected reality, or in short SMART. For Zurich Insurance they are (Zurich Insurance 2009a): 1.3.1 Profitable growth The company seeks to identify and exploit opportunities for profitable growth. These opportunities arise when there are strategic gaps in offer at target markets or locations. It is either achieved though the existing business of the company or through acquisition of new business. Key performance indicators (KPI) for this objective are groups operating profit margin and its net profits. 1.3.2 Operational transformation The operational transformation objective aims at building strength at core areas as risk management, investment management, underwriting and claims, measured through the level of quality of services. 1.3.3 Customer centricity The customer centricity is the centre of companys mission achieved through five specific indicators as presented in Figure 2. People management The companys objectives are to employ the best talent, and to provide opportunities for its further professional development. Situational Analysis A situational analysis in the strategic management, consists of analysis of the external and internal context of the company, and serves to identify possible gaps in the strategic positioning of the company that can be a strategic opportunity or threat, and in identifying its internal strengths and weakness. In essence, it is what practitioners call a marketing audit. A marketing audit is a comprehensive, systematic, independent, and periodic examination of a companys or business units marketing environment, objectives, strategies, and activities with a view to determining problem areas and opportunities and recommending a plan of action to improve the companys marketing performance (Kotler and Keller 2006, p.719). Thus it is a tool that assists the management in describing current activities and their outcomes, performed for setting new strategic direction of the company, or as in the case of Zurich Insurance for setting a new marketing plan. 2.1 External Analysis The analysis of the business environment is a significant step in understanding the external concept in which the company functions. According to Johnson (2005, p.64) this understanding is built on several levels: the macro environment, the micro environment-the industry, the competitors (strategic groups) and the markets (segments). 2.1.1.Macroeconomic Analysis-PESTEL The PESTEL tool helps in identifying the factors that determine the external strategic opportunities and threats of companies operating in a certain industry (Johnson 2005, p.57). Thomson and Strickland (2003, p.93) regard these factors as key drivers of change, shaping the strategic environment of the industry (Lynch 2009, p.79), and significant in the process of building scenarios of possible futures (Johnson 2005, p.57). In the case of Zurich Insurance, these factors are given as follows. Political environment The more conditions which globalisation brings to businesses and their operations as are the openness of trade and easier movement of capital, the impact of the lack of more structured global governance represents a high systematic risk for the insurance sector. According to the Global Risk Report (WEF 2010), in most of the cases of risk identification, the experts identified weak or inadequate institutions or agreements in almost all of the risks covered. This is why global governance gap emerged as a systematic risk crucial in addressing many critical global issues over the coming years of importance for the insurance industry as are the climate change effects and the natural disasters. Economic environment The GDP growth is one of the most important pre-conditions for the profitability in the insurance sector. The global economy is a contrast of the stagnant growth in the developed countries (2-3% projected growth in the next 5 years) and a stronger positive growth in the developing regions (7% growth by 2015) (IMF 2010, p.4). This slowdown, negatively affects the insurance business in the areas of property and casualties, as the market is not growing causing a fierce competition pressuring margins. Many countries, especially the ones from the developed world as a response to the financial crisis from 2007, responded with overextending their fiscal positions, endangering unsustainable levels of debt which, in turn, may lead to full-fledged sovereign debt crises (WDF 2010). Based on IMF data, WEF (2010) reports of G20 budget deficits at 7.9% of their combined GDP. Although necessary these costs created a mountain of debt, that will have to be serviced on behalf of reduction in government spending on health and pensions, increasing the opportunities for the private life and pension insurance. Socio-cultural environment A key socio-economic driver influencing the environment of the insurance industry and thus Zurich Insurance is the ageing of the population in the developed countries. At the moment, many public health are not designed for meeting these needs, and will contract pushing the population towards the private insurers (WEF 2010). Technological environment Technology as a key driver of change, in particular affected the insurance sales channels, enabling transparency for the end buyers and a possibility to compare prices. In some target markets this possibility affected and still affects insurance premiums. From the aspect of the fast penetration of the IT/IS in the operations of companies, the risks of a major failure which could jeopardise the operations of the industry on a global scale are small, as the financial industry in general is very conservative towards the new trends of use of IT, while cloud computing is still out of industry comprehension. Environmental environment A key driver of change for the insurance industry coming from the environment is the global climate change. The severity of extreme weather accompanied global catastrophes in the form of natural disasters as hurricanes, wildfires and floods, may result in greater damage of the environment, infrastructure and property, even loss of life, increasing insurance claims (WEF 2010). Legal environment The financial industry in general, and the insurance sector is particular is one of the most regulated areas in the world that penetrates all its operations. In many cases, insurance is obligatory as is the motor-insurance, and in some countries the prices are set. As a result, it can be argued that the industry products in general are price inelastic. 2.1.2.Industry Analysis Economic theory defines an industry as a group of firms producing the same principal product (Rutherford 1985 as cited in Johnson 2005, p.77) or, more broadly, a group of firms producing products that are close substitutes for each other (Porter 1980, p.5). From a strategic management perspective, analysing the attractiveness of the insurance means determining the profit potential through understanding the competitive forces in that industry and the way in which Zurich Insurance chooses to compete (Johnson 2005, p78). Key Strategic Groups The insurance industry is characterised with two specific market segments, life and non-life insurance. The industry is highly fragmented with large number of players (Datamonitor 2010b, p.) of which most function in the both markets, and the markets are heavily regulated, as a result there are no specific strategic groups within this industry. Five Forces Analysis While many times put on test, challenged and questioned, for almost three decades Porters five forces model (1980, 1985), is the dominant model accepted for analyzing the attractiveness of industries. Porters analysis shows that in the insurance industry the competitive rivalry is high and intensive. It is an industry in the shakeout phase of its cycle, characterised with small annual growth (Johnson 2005, p.86). The industry phase is characterised with a shakeout of the weakest competitors, encouraging acquisitions and consolidation. The main buyers in the industry are the policy holders, individuals and corporations, while the main suppliers are seen in the IT companies. Although the switching costs for the buyers are high due to contract obligations, the overall buyer power is assessed as moderate due to the large number of individual customers, which devaluates the meaning of the choice of an individual buyer. Within the business segment, the buyer power is lowered further due to the fact that businesses actually require insurance to protect their companies from risk; however, large companies excursive stronger negotiating power compared to the individuals. As the insurance industry works with information and stores huge amounts of data, the IT companies and software houses are its main supplier. It usually is a larger company as IBM, while the software systems are complex and interlinked, which increases supplier power and the switching costs. In recent years there have been trends of outsourcing the tasks to off-shore companies; however, this is not the dominant trend in this industry, which is why the supplier power is assessed as strong. It is a capital incentive industry which serves as a major entry barrier to newcomers; however, competitors from within the large financial industry as Banks, wherever the legislation allows them, can easily enter at the market. The overall treat coming from newcomers is assessed as moderate. There are no real substitutes to insurance. Many insurance products are legally required in many countries, which is why the threat coming from the substitutes is assessed as weak. Overall, the attractiveness of the industry in combination with its life cycle stage is assessed as moderate (Datamonitor 2010b). 2.1.3. Market Analysis The insurance market consists of two very important segments: the life and non-life insurance. Zurich insurance operates in the both segments. The life insurance segment participates with 57% in the total value at the market. The non-life segment has a significant growth potential in the emerging markets as China where this rate is very low (Datamonitor 2010c), where the state still covers the life-insurance. According to the estimations of Datamonitor (2010b), the market had a compound annual growth rate of 2.7% for the period 2005-2009 with an anticipated annual growth of 6.7% for the period 2009-2014, with a higher market growth expected on the Asian market. 2.1.4. Opportunities and Threats The external analysis presented in the preceding sections identifies the existence of several external strategic opportunities and threats for Zurich Insurance. The opportunities come from the process of consolidation and geographic expansion in the emerging markets, from the ageing population at the developed markets and the good developments at the assets management market. The industry faces tough times due to the slow recovery of the global economy and the increasing environmental risks for the only risk taker in the society. The risks from a catastrophe, either from a severe weather, or a major natural disaster, are high, and the insurance industry is the only one taking accountability for these occurrences on a global level thus there is a global governance gap that threatens the industry. Table 1.Telescopic ObservationFramework Technological considerations Economic considerations Legal and regulatory requirements Ecological and Environmental issues Sociological Trends Competition Organisational Culture Portfolio analysis International issues Cost efficiencies and cost structures New technology and fast penetration of IT in the insurance channels Slow growth of the global economy, Heavily regulated industry in almost all countries. Climate Change causing severe weather and catastrophes Ageing population in the mature markets; longer life expectations; Population growth at the emerging markets Intensive rivalry, many players Strong and unique Life and non-life products, and products for global companies Global governance gap a major risk for the insurance industry Strengths Zurich is successful in IT implementation. Zurich is 5thglobal player Unique Culture Proposition UPS Strong Weaknesses Needs more security Opportunity Increased demand for new life insurance products; Penetration at the emerging markets Opportunity to acquire competitors Threats It will decrease company revenues It will increase insurance claims No strong global governance increases global risks .2. Internal Analysis In the contemporary strategic management, the analysis of internal business environment covers a wide range of issues that developed in the past two decades mainly as a result of the emergence of the resource based view on strategy (Barney 1991, Rumelt 1991). Unfortunately, as Herrmann (2005) argues, since the RBV did not produce a dominant design, it developed in many different ways identifying key company resources, capacities, core capabilities, dynamic capabilities, ending with the knowledge-based competitive advantages (Johnson 2005, Lynch 2009). At the end it got merged with the positioning school providing a strong academic background to the use of SWOT (used by companies from 1960s) (Linstaed 2004, p.502). Today there are several models available for the internal analysis. This report will use the Porters value chain (1985), which explains how the company is internally organised to reach its objectives. The chain further serves as a good base for identifying comp anys core capabilities and competencies (Hamel and Phrahald 1990), while the use of the Balance Scorecard (Kaplan and Norton 1996) as a tool, complements Porters Value chain as it provides the measures and the benchmarks against which the companys internal performance is measured in line with corporate goals. 2.2.1. Value Chain Analysis Zurich Financial is one of the largest insurance groups in the world serving approximately 60,000 people in more than 170 countries (Zurich Insurance 2010). Its value chain is developed using information from companys Annual reports. Table 2. Zurich Insurance Value Chain Analysis PROFIT MARGIN Firm Infrastructure (ZI Annual report 2009a) Successful integration of activities in a strong international value-chain with highly developed IT infrastructure; Centralised organisational structure, but with strong local adaptation decision making as products depends on national legal requirements and culture (EB 2008); Companywide culture emphasising customer centric behaviour. Human Resource Management (ZI Annual report 2009, ZI Business Review 2009,EB 2008) Recruitment and selection of the best high qualified teams of employees; Succession planning structures; Global approach to leadership development; Continuous training and development; Global performance management,; Global learning management system; Compensation programs with variable remuneration designed to encourage customer centric behaviour and creativity, but discourage risk-taking (ZI Annual report 2009, p.99); Innovative benefits scheme encouraging employee collaboration; Technology development Heavy investments in technology deployment 0 needs a good security (Insley 2010) Procurement (ZI Annual report 2009) Long-term contracts with major IT suppliers; Procurement systems in place for the other minor suppliers. Inbound logistics Information technology and internet Operations New Product development; Underwriting, Risk management, Investment management; Outbound logistics Forms, design management, filling and printing of the insurance policies. Marketing and sales Strong CRM build on a unique proposition deep customer understanding; Frequent promotional activities; Use of many sales channels and different compensation schemes of third party agents to reach customers but avoiding cannibalisation. After Sale Service Technology driven claims handling and servicing which enable easy fast way to deal with the company (ZI BR 2009b, p.27); Following up the client and its needs; Increasing knowledge on the client needs deep customer understanding; It is important to note, that Porters Value chain is designed to focus on a business unit, rather than on a group comprising of three core business units as Zurich; however, due to the merge of many of its core operations, the value chain can be simplified as provided in the Table above. 2.2.2. The Balance Scorecard The application of the Balance Scorecard propositions (Kaplan and Norton 1996), provides for the capability of measuring the financial and non-financial impact of the operations of the company, seen through measuring four thematic areas: Financial, Customers, Processes and People (Competence). It indicates that Zurich Insurance operating model as presented with the Portes Value chain, resulted in the 5th global rank of the Company in 2009 with an annual increase of the operating profit margin of 8% (target at 10%) (Zurich Insurance 2009b). The company in 2005, had a significant improvement in companys operations from 2007, when the group reported a decrease of 64.9% with a decrease in net profits of 46.8% . In the more mature countries, UK, US, Switzerland and Japan, it is among the top three insurers on every service (Zurich Insurance 2009b). Zurich strongest business unit is the general insurance, which brings the highest revenues and profits ((Zurich Insurance 2009b p.13), and with USD 34,157 million in premium fees, reflects the immense scale of companys global operations. Zurich Insurance employees more than 60 000 employees globally are one of its main stakeholder groups. Employees receive trainings and developments, while a sophisticated annually survey measures employee satisfaction (Zurich Insurance 2009b, p.35). The group as well implements annual customer feedback surveys. 2.2.3. Core Competences and Capabilities The core capability of Zurich lies in its right combination of tangible (finances, people, premises) and intangible resources (knowledge, expertise, culture and brand) (Grant 2005, p.140). Zurichs strong risk management knowledge combined with its social capital, supported with strong companys culture based on trust and knowledge-sharing, and its innovative, but risk-averse provision of new solutions, differentiates the company from the rest at the market and is the essence of its core competency and competitive advantage (Zurich Insurance 2009b). The strong customer relationship and customer dependability increase Zurich Insurance ability to introduce new products, charge premium price on certain products and cross-sell on others. It as well builds on the strong and unique Culture, which as Kingl (2010) argues is Zurichs Unique Selling Proposition, or Unique Culture Proposition. 2.2.4. Zurich Insurance Culture Web To better understand the premise of Zurichs UCP, we will use the culture web tool as recommended by Johnson (2005 p.202), based on the preceding analysis Zurich Insuranc and on the findings of Kingl (2010) case study 2.2.5. Identified Strengths and Weaknesses The company is characterised with a strong market position, a strong brand, a unique, value delivering culture and an impressive financial performance in terms of profits and revenues (compared to the results from 2008). Moreover, the company has an impressive record of successful integrations with acquisitions which indicates that it is using the opportunities presented from the shakeout phase of the industry business cycle (Zurich Insurance 2010). There are only very few weaknesses. First, the operating profit margin is still bellow the target of 10%. Second, the group is highly dependent from the revenues coming from the general insurance segment which participates with 53% in the operating profit. Third, the risk management system of the general insurance segment must improve to provide better capacity for accumulating larger number of claims in cases of natural or other type of disaster, having in mind that the main impact of the increased claims in these areas impacted the low financial results in 2007. Summary of the current situation impact- SWOT The current external and internal situational impact as provided with SWOT and with the telescopic Observation Framework (Panagiotou and Wijnen 2005) in the table below identifies several important areas of development for the company in the period to come. In line with its corporate objectives, Zurich should: exploit the good opportunities that come from the growth in the emerging and the developed markets; improve its operations, especially the operating profit margin. In addition, as the companys operations are extremely vulnerable to the effects of the climate change and the global governance gap, and as its interests are aligned with the interests of the majority of stakeholders (which is not the case in many industries as the oil or tobacco industry), it should make the CSR at the core of its strategic positioning in line with the model of Porter and Keller (2006). It can be done through promoting its knowledge, analysis and insightful perspective regarding the global risks as much as possible, and positioning in the minds of its current and potential customers as a business genuinely interested in reducing these effects. Marketing Objectives Five year plan Marketing objectives are specific and quantitative benchmarks of marketing goals that guide the implementation of marketing plans (Ferrell and Hartline 2008, p.140). Objectives exist because marketing goals without measurements are meaningless. Researchers and practitioners (Armstrong 2009, McDonald 2008, Kotler and Keller 2006) emphasise that they must reflect: (1) the corporate and business objectives; (2) the target market needs and companys competitive capability to serve these markets; (3) the industry and markets evolution, and be (4)SMART (Sustainable, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time-bound). In line with the findings of the preceding analysis, and the Telescopic Framework (Table 3) the following marketing objectives should guide the Zurich Insurance five year plan: Increase its market share at the emerging markets, in all targeted segments, but in particular in the non-life segment which is underdeveloped; Increase its penetration at the mature markets of the developing countries thorough targeting current and new segments (the ageing population needs); Make Corporate Social Responsibility part of its positioning and tide it strongly to the word help associated with its customer centric culture and its strong brand. The CSR will reinforce the positioning of the brand across all segments. Marketing Strategies For accomplishing these objectives, the companys choice of market activities will depend on its choice of strategic development strategy. 4.1 Ansoff s Matrix According to Johnson (2005, pp: 341-347) the Ansoff product/market can be used for identifying directions for strategic development, taking into account the product/market coverage and the strategic capabilities of the company. Figure 6 Ainsoff Matrix of Zurich Insurance Market Development New capabilities (existing products in new markets) Life and non-life penetration into the emerging markets; Market Development New segments Increasing the scope of existing life insurance policies to certain segment of the ageing population at the mature markets in the developing world. Diversification with new capabilities (new products at new markets) Not suggested at the moment, as the finances are required to fuel the growth in the mature and the emerging markets. Market penetration Penetration and market share accumulation on the existing markets through acquisitions. Product development with new capabilities (new products at existing markets) New products for the ageing population at the mature markets in the developing world. 6. Marketing Implementation 7Ps According to practitioners (Kotler and Keller 2006, p), the implementation of the marketing strategies is achieved through making decisions regarding the content of the offer (product), its price, how it will be delivered to the customers and what distribution channels will be used, i.e. the 4Ps of the marketing mix. The 4Ps of the marketing mix were introduced in the 70s of the past century, and since then dominate the methodology used in strategic marketing. As Kotler (2008) services have three very distinctive characteristics compared to the physical products as are intangibility, inseparability and perishability. These characteristics made it difficult for the service practitioners to adapt the 4Ps model to their offerings, which is why the model expended with three additional elements: People, Processes and Physical assets. In its essence the insurance industry is a service industry, which is why the designed marketing mix will have 7Ps and will aim at accomplishing compa nys marketing objectives in terms of market share, development, or penetration. The 7Ps implementation model for the three business units of Zurich Insurance is given in Table 4. Table 3. 7Ps Segments General Insurance (non-life) Global Life (life) Farmers Product/Service: 1. The traditional product offer, strengthened with new products at the mature markets; 2. New products for the needs of the emerging markets. The traditional product offer, strengthened with new products in the pension insurance; The traditional product offer, strengthened with new products due to the good prospects of the market; Price: Price reflects the regulatory requirements in each of the sectors and the intense rivalry in some segments. Place:

Thursday, September 19, 2019

New Meaning in a Brave New World :: Brave New World

New Meaning in a Brave New World The motto of the "Brave New World" was "Community, Identity, and Stability." In the following essay the actual meanings of these terms will be addressed. The term "Community" really did not have the meaning that we are accustomed to hearing and speaking in the modern day and age (1996). Instead it stands for almost a lack of "Community", meaning that there is no choice of where one ranks in the "Community", instead you are assigned even before production (natural birth is non-existent) your place in society and a person could never know what are the differences between being an Alpha or a Gamma. A person in the community is shared by everyone in the "Community", everyone belongs to everyone every person is shared sexually with one another, and there is no emotional bond because are breed not to have them. The term "Identity" is a complete opposite from the way that we are accustomed to seeing it and feeling it, in other words it is non-existent no one has any feelings, and no one posses any of their own personal characteristics, they are all alike. If a person were to try and find their own identity they were looked down upon and had to take a soma holiday (soma was a legal drug that took away all of a persons feelings or individualized idea’s). The soma holiday was everyone’s way out of having to deal with anything unpleasant or their way of having a good time. The "Stability" in the "Brave New World" is a different sort of "Stability", the "Stability" in "Brave New World" is economic stability, clothes were not to be mended, instead new ones were to be purchased to support economic stability and growth. Nothing was allowed to be produced or purchased that was not very expensive and did not require money to keep it in good running condition. If the society let cheap things onto the market or things were fixed easily what would happen to the vast economic society, it would develop cracks and eventually fall to the ground with a thundering crash. The entire society in "Brave New World" was based solely on science and technology and not on the social aspect of people, personal freedoms, and feeling differently from your fellow man. Science and technology was not only the basis of their being, and the way they lived it was also the sole reason that life seemed so different than it does in the present day and age (1996).

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Internet and Its Effects Essay -- Argumentative Persuasive Essays

The Internet and Its Effects The Internet was first developed in 1957 as a communication resource for the military Defense Unit. Since then the Internet remains to a service of communication that is now provided to all people with the access of a computer. Over the past several years the Internet has developed and expanded into an endless resource of information and knowledge. With billions of Internet users present in the world today, the idea of living life through the computer is not as uncommon as it used to be. Today people have the opportunity to experience relationships and receive an education through the computer. Although the quality of this kind of life is available, one may ask how realistic and healthy is it. Through the Internet, the process of gaining the products of life is non-existent. For example, I remember doing book reports and the process and experience in which it created. I would set aside at least a few hours of a day to go to the library, and work with a Liberian as a team in order to locate the information that I needed. I would then travel through an array of books to my destination. I would search through a few books on the same topic located right next to the book for which I had been looking. After finding several books with an array of different information I check them out, return home, and enjoy. Some may say that the Internet could have saved me the time it took to locate my resources. However, the process I went through socially, mentally and physically are aspects of life created through an experience, which the Internet cannot provide. Although the services provided through technology have brought society closer together, it has also pushed it farther apart. Consequently the Internet may... ...he effect. I have, and will continue to, experience the change and lack of communication that occurs with family and friends. The method in which I receive my education continues to become less personal as teachers take a step back and computers jump foreword. Computers are not a choice, they are a required form of communication in today's world that suggest we could all learn a great deal from sitting at a computer, alone. Works Cited Hallak, Jacques. " Global Connections, Expanding Partnership and New Challenges." U.S. Department of Education. September 20, 2000. (28 April 2002) Buchanan, Elizabeth. " The Social Microcosm of the Classroom." CPSR Newsletter. December 1997. (22 April 2002) Scherlis, William. "Internet Paradox, a Social Technology That Reduces Social Involvement and Psychological Well Being." American Psychologist 53 (1998): 1017-1031

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Cryobiology: Low Temperature Studies Of Biological Systems :: Biology Biological Papers

Cryobiology: Low Temperature Studies Of Biological Systems Thesis: Low temperature biology, or cryobiology, has the possibility, and may very easily and very drastically affect everyones' lives in the future. Through rapidly approaching cryobiological medical procedures and techniques, the presence of intense ethical issues may play an important role in many everyday decisions that do not now exist. Introduction What is cryobiology? It is "the study of the effects of freezing and low temperatures on living organisms" (Read, 1999). While the main focus of cryobiology is on living organisms (as suggested above), cryobiological techniques have been expanded to include treatment of nonliving things as well. This addition of non-living objects has expanded the focus to not only include plants, animals, and humans, but also to include machinery and other metal objects. A common synonym of cryobiology is "cryogenics". According to the New American Desk Encyclopedia (1989), cryogenics is defined as "the branch of physics dealing with the behavior of matter at very low temperatures, and with the production of those temperatures." As can be seen, cryogenics is a slightly more focused study of the cryobiological field dealing primarily with production methods of those freezing temperatures. Another sub-study field, if you will, is that of cryonics. Cryonics is defined as the practice of freezing humans who are not curable by current medical technology, in the hope that ways may be found to bring them back to life at some future time when ways of repairing the damage caused by the freezing process have been developed, as well as cures of the diseases or other causes of death which necessitated their cryonics suspension (Cryogenics International, 1999). As suggested above, cryobiology is primarily centered on the effects on those living organisms or non-living objects, although the methods and procedures are also very important. All around the world new and improved techniques are being tested to make this a better medical and preservational procedure. Not only are the different techniques and procedures getting increased attention, but also many accompanying controversial issues are as well. Low temperature biology, or cryobiology, has the possibility to very easily and very drastically affect everyoneà ­s lives in the future. Through rapidly approaching cryobiological medical procedures and techniques, the presence of intense ethical issues may play an important role in many everyday decisions that do not now exist. Cryobiology Techniques There are many different cryobiological techniques that exist and are being used today. Cryobiology: Low Temperature Studies Of Biological Systems :: Biology Biological Papers Cryobiology: Low Temperature Studies Of Biological Systems Thesis: Low temperature biology, or cryobiology, has the possibility, and may very easily and very drastically affect everyones' lives in the future. Through rapidly approaching cryobiological medical procedures and techniques, the presence of intense ethical issues may play an important role in many everyday decisions that do not now exist. Introduction What is cryobiology? It is "the study of the effects of freezing and low temperatures on living organisms" (Read, 1999). While the main focus of cryobiology is on living organisms (as suggested above), cryobiological techniques have been expanded to include treatment of nonliving things as well. This addition of non-living objects has expanded the focus to not only include plants, animals, and humans, but also to include machinery and other metal objects. A common synonym of cryobiology is "cryogenics". According to the New American Desk Encyclopedia (1989), cryogenics is defined as "the branch of physics dealing with the behavior of matter at very low temperatures, and with the production of those temperatures." As can be seen, cryogenics is a slightly more focused study of the cryobiological field dealing primarily with production methods of those freezing temperatures. Another sub-study field, if you will, is that of cryonics. Cryonics is defined as the practice of freezing humans who are not curable by current medical technology, in the hope that ways may be found to bring them back to life at some future time when ways of repairing the damage caused by the freezing process have been developed, as well as cures of the diseases or other causes of death which necessitated their cryonics suspension (Cryogenics International, 1999). As suggested above, cryobiology is primarily centered on the effects on those living organisms or non-living objects, although the methods and procedures are also very important. All around the world new and improved techniques are being tested to make this a better medical and preservational procedure. Not only are the different techniques and procedures getting increased attention, but also many accompanying controversial issues are as well. Low temperature biology, or cryobiology, has the possibility to very easily and very drastically affect everyoneà ­s lives in the future. Through rapidly approaching cryobiological medical procedures and techniques, the presence of intense ethical issues may play an important role in many everyday decisions that do not now exist. Cryobiology Techniques There are many different cryobiological techniques that exist and are being used today.

Monday, September 16, 2019

‘Up’ The Movie

Up is a movie directed by Pete Docter and produced by Pixar Animation Studios. Its lead actors are; Edward Asner, Christopher Plummer and Jordan Nagai. Up is an animation, adventure, comedy, drama and family movie which was released on the 3rd of September 2009 in Australia. This film struck me for its stunning and beautiful images. No doubt we face one of those movies that are meant to be enjoyed by children and their parents at the same time. The story tells about an elderly widower, grumpy, stubborn dreamer, Carl, who decides to realize his childhood dream, a dream that once shared with his late and beloved wife to travel to Paradise Falls in South America. When her beloved little house is turned into an island surrounded by skyscrapers and he is pressured by real estate deals, and authorities want to send him to a nursing home, Carl decides to escape by tying thousands of balloons to his home with a rudimentary but ingenious navigation system. The first surprise of the trip is to discover that carrying a stowaway, Russell, a nice boy scout who became his travelling partner. The story is fast-paced, with moments of humour, suspense and overall sleek and stunning animated images. The actors did a very good roll making the voices for every character and they made us believe and feel what the story was about, they made us feel sad and happy at the same time. I must confess that the first minutes of the film are very depressing. The first minutes are a stark summary of Carl’s life. We see it in his childhood, when he was just a child, the stage where he meets another girl who would become his future wife. We quickly turned into young love, marriage, happy moments, sad moments, diseases and Carl burying his beloved wife which is truly shocking and hard. Music plays a very important roll in this part of the movie because no one talks and the music does everything, they try to make you feel happy and sad just with the music and it is very effective. It is a very good movie that everyone would enjoy and it is very well produced too. I think it is suitable for children and adults who want to spend an entertaining time.

Race: Black People and Larger Racial Minorities Essay

Answer the following questions in 100 to 250 words each. Provide citations for all the sources you use. * Throughout most of U. S. history, in most locations, what race has been in the majority? What is the common ancestral background of most members of this group? White people have been the majority of the population. The common ancestral background of most of the members in this group are Europeans. * What are some of the larger racial minorities in U. S. history? What have been the common ancestral backgrounds of each of these groups? When did each become a significant or notable minority group? Whites and blacks are a larger race in us. Europeans are the common ancestral background of whites and African American common ancestral background was from the west. The whites became a significant minority group in the 1600’s and blacks became a significant minority group in the 1800’s * In what ways have laws been used to enforce discrimination? Provide examples. These laws were intended against which racial minorities? Laws have been enforcing discrimination by making sure that all races have the same opportunity at a job. This is the civil rights act and it was made so that blacks and other races could all have a fair chance at a job and could not be rejected because of their race. If a black person would try to get a job and not get hired but a white person goes in and has everything the same as the black person but gets hired the black person can take that company to court for discrimination. These laws where intended for all racial minorities so everyone has the same opportunity. * In what ways have laws been used to eliminate discrimination? Provide examples. Did the laws work to eliminate discrimination? Allowing blacks and white to attend the same schools and allowing them to sit anywhere on a bus. Back years ago blacks had to sit in the back of the bus and if a white person needed a seat they had to give up theirs, as far as the schooling goes now black and whites can go to the same schools. I think the laws worked to eliminate discrimination because you do not see anyone making a black person move for a white person or having a school with only white kids. They laws have helped us become one country instead of 2 and everyone has a better look at each other now that we can combine races.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Are Lord And Lady Capulet Good Parents? Essay

The Victorian era was a tremendously exciting period when many artistic styles, political and religious movements flourished. It was the era of invention and progress and it would prove to progress a lot leaving Victorian life at the end of Queen Victoria’s reign unrecognizable. Life in Victorian times was very much based on and steeped in tradition, religion and reason. This is why they were hugely fascinated by things outside the box like ghosts, the supernatural, magic, foreign travel and Arabian nights. Foreign travel was only available to the extremely rich, the army and health services, and Arabian nights was like a fantasy land to them. Reading about things like this was like naughty literature to them, a secret thrill that they shouldn’t be reading as it’s against there religion. Victorians were starting to think it was possible that other things could be out there, expanding there minds to different possibilities, taking in more ideas and enjoying it. The Monkeys Paw (W.W Jacobs) and The Red Room (H.G Wells) are both Victorian short stories pushing against reason and religion and filling the Victorians minds with endless possibilities. Where The Red Room is more a traditional Victorian gothic ghost story The Monkeys Paw is more to do with foreign travel, different lands and magic. The Monkeys Paw is W.W. Jacobs’ most famous story and is considered to be a classic of horror fiction. A tale about morality, the right thing to do, the dangers of the tempting fate and messing around with things you don’t understand. It sends out a message†¦ ‘Be careful for what you wish for’. The opening of the story is a metaphor of society, the Victorians were very cozy in there lifestyle. Huddling together to keep England, keep ideas, keep reason, keep religion and stick to what they know but new things are trying to get in. When Jacobs wrote The Monkeys Paw the Victorians were curious about exotic far off lands and travelling, a popular saying at the time was â€Å"the sun never sets on the British empire † By the early 1900s, England had conquered and colonized countries all over the world. The saying meant that somewhere in the world it was always daylight, and there a British colony could be found. Jacobs uses foreshadowing, imagery and symbolism in this story to explore the consequences of tempting fate. His careful, economical creation of setting and atmosphere add suspense and tension to the tale, two of the main story themes along with fate and chance. As the story unfolds, author Jacobs provides many hints that, indeed, the monkey’s paw does possess strange powers, and that tempting fate by making the three wishes is a grave mistake†¦ The story begins with a contrast between a close cozy Victorian family in Lakesnam Villa that are huddled together by the warm fire, father and son playing chess whilst mother knits against the terrible cold damp remoteness of the outside world hidden behind the closed blinds. The name of the villa of which they live is named ‘Laburnum’ which is also the name of a deadly poisonous plant, making the characters home the name of a deadly plant could be informing the reader something bad could happen later on within the story so this makes the reader wonder more creating tension within the reader as they are apprehensive as to what will happen next. Down the page a bit when Mr. White puts his king into â€Å"sharp and unnecessary perils† and soon sees â€Å"a fatal mistake after it was too late† it’s a kind of mini-drama, one that tells us what is about to happen in the story. Its using foreshadowing to depict and event early on in the story that is real ly a big part of the plot that is soon to unfold, it’s a clever and sneaky parallel to the ending which becomes only clear on your second read. We get our first look in at tension and suspense when the cozy atmosphere is suddenly disturbed by sudden noises such as a banging gate and heavy footsteps, it’s the best example of suspense and tension as the reader feels that there must be a reason behind a visit to such an isolated place, it also makes the reader more curious. The banging of the gate heralds the arrival of their guest, Sergeant-Major Morris, ‘a tall, burley man, beady of eye and rubicund of visage’ his descriptive description of appearance makes impact on sight as he’s so big in the room, towering above the White family. His appearance and experience is broader and he is the catalyst for the story as he brings the monkey’s paw to the Whites’ home which will change there lives forever. Morris is both familiar and exotic. Morris and Mr. White began their lives in approximately the same way; Mr. White remembers his friend as â€Å"a slip of a youth in the warehouse,† But in his twenty-one years of travel and soldiering, Morris has seen the world and has brought back tales of ‘wild scenes and doughty deeds; of wars and plagues and strange peoples.’ He’s been a lot of places and seen a lot of things yet the White family cant possibly imagine going to another country, living there life in a routine and never stepping out of it but Mr. White hints that he does want to travel stating â€Å"I’d like to go to India myself,†. Morris advises against it though saying â€Å"better where you are,† travelling isn’t all that good, better to stick to what you now instead of pushing boundaries. They’ve shared a few drinks and Morris’ eyes are brighter with his third glass of whisky at the Whites’ hearth so Mr. White now decides to bring up a previous conversation that was maybe let slip at a pub when Morris was again slightly over the limit, dropping into conversation â€Å"you started telling me the other day about a monkeys paw or something, Morris† but Morris is not keen on picking up the story that he hoped would not be brought up and discards it, stating it as â€Å"not worth hearing† and being offhanded hoping to push it aside and forget it. He’s now got all three peoples attention as the ‘three listeners leaned forward eagerly’ but he doesn’t really want it. When he finally does tell them about the monkeys paw his ‘blotchy face whitened’ and his ‘glass tapped against his strong teeth’ he shows a lot of nervous body language clearly wanting to avoid the subject completely. He tells them of a spell put on the paw by an old fakir that â€Å"wanted to show that fate ruled people’s lives, and that those who interfered with it did so to their own sorrow† which is also the moral of the story and their â€Å"light laughter jarred somewhat† using alliteration to give a light feel as they laughed uncomfortably at what he said. He says the paw gives three wishes to three different men and that he and a man before him have both had three wishes each. Mr. White deliberately doesn’t ask what Morris’ three wishes were but it appears clear they didn’t go well and Morris doesn’t offer to tell them either seeming anxious as well as nervous at this point. Circumstances soon become s ad as he explains the first mans third wish â€Å"was for death† exampling the extreme power the paw has as ‘hush fell upon the group’. Morris thinks â€Å"it has caused enough mischief already† not wanting the responsibility of passing it on to any one else and the whole way through the story he’s talking with caution of not wanting them to touch it, he’s trying to warn them. â€Å"Better let it burn† he says, he’d like to see it destroyed to put and end to it but Mr. White has other ideas â€Å"if you don’t want it ,Morris give it to me† he says back. Showing true friendship Morris wont, not wanting any blame and trying to protect his friends by keeping them out of harms way but Mr. White cant resist temptation and the excitement of playing with danger, its naughty and he knows it could have consequences but he’s on the spot, its a heat of the moment decision let it burn or try it out making the readers are curious to know more about the monkeys paw and what all can it actually do. Since there is a bad impression of the paw so far in the story the readers will also want to know what is going to happen later on and how deadly the paw can be, this sense of mystery builds suspense and tension, he has no time to think about it and just goes for it. Trying to lift the mood and break the atmosphere Mrs. White to laugh it off â€Å"sounds like Arabian nights, don’t you think you might wish for four pairs of hands for me?† she says beginning to set the supper but Morris isn’t impressed with her humor, he doesn’t feel the subject should be joked or laughed about as its not a laughing matter and doesn’t appreciate her messing around with it. â€Å"if you wish, wish for something sensible† he says. There son Herbert on the other hand doesn’t believe in it anymore then he believes in Morris’ travels saying â€Å"if the tale about the monkeys paw is not more truthful than those he has been telling us†. Mr. White took the monkeys paw and gave Morris money for it although he â€Å"didn’t want it† and he ‘pressed Mr. White again to make him throw it away’ so even after being paid he wanted them to get rid of it proving he didn’t just want money for it. The White family are at first unsure what to wish for, Mr. White says â€Å"I’ve got all I want† not being a materialistic man and being very family driven/orientated he believes that having a family, home and being comfy and safe is everything which is a very Victorian ethic but eventually they ‘wish for two hundred pounds’ to cover the mortgage and make the home there own. Tension builds up in a mock dramatic moment as Mr. White breathes the words â€Å"I wish for two hundred pounds† as if in a tense film Herbert crashes the piano like a drum roll for dad, Jacob uses the sound effect to build tension and suspense builds up after he speaks the wish as its all silent and the reader is at edge expecting something to happen. After he wishes he drops the paw ‘with a glance of disgust’ convinced it had moved in his hand he says it â€Å"twisted like a snake† using a simile to create a strange imagery of evil things associated with bad things and bad deeds. Herbert dismisses the whole thing saying â€Å"I don’t see the money, and I bet I never shall† which is an ironic parallel to the end as he doesn’t see the money, but not because it doesn’t exist. Outside the wind becomes ‘higher then ever’ and Mr. White ‘started nervously at the sound of a door banging’ disturbing the ‘unusual and depressing silence’ tension builds here as the cozy atmosphere changes dramatically and Mr. White is left feeling extremely unsettled about the whole thing and the fact the atmosphere has changed so much from the outside influences trying to break in. Suspense is built again when Mr. White looks into the fire and sees faces that are ‘so simian that he gazed at it in amazement’ simian meaning ape like it will shock the readers and Mr. White and we see him get fearful for the first time in the story. The next morning is a completely different atmosphere, it changes from a scene from a traditional horror story of a noisy and scary outside and a silent dark solemn depressing inside to the scene of brightness and happiness at a typical Victorian family breakfast table as a ‘wintery sun streamed over the breakfast table’ The new atmosphere leaves the family thinking about the way they got caught up in the story the night before and allowing it to scare them silly. Mrs. White especially thinks that the fear of the night before was ridiculous saying even if the wish was granted â€Å"how could money hurt you† little does she know, it can and it’s using dramatic irony. Not believing in it didn’t prevent her from ‘scurrying to the door at the postman’s knock’ with a hint that she’s hopeful something exciting will still happen, and the money will still come. Later on in the day she watches ‘mysterious movements of a man outside’ using a soft alliteration sound the sentence also builds suspense of who this unexpected visitor could be and what he could want. More suspense is created as he hesitates at the gate ‘trying to make up his mind to enter’. The man appears to be wealthy looking which immediately makes Mrs. White assume he is here to give them the money as she can think of no other reason that a wealthy, well dressed man would come to her house. When he finally comes to the house she ‘apologizes for the appearance of the room and her husbands coat’ embarrassed and tense about the state of her house but he’s taking no notice creating more suspense as he looks for a displacement activity when announcing he comes from ‘Maw and Meggins’ were there son works. The wealthy man delivers the news of their son’s death in a perverted and strange way, dragging it out to build tension. He says he’s â€Å"badly hurt but not feeling any pain† building suspension and leaving the readers on the edge of there seats wanting to know what’s happened and if he’s alright, but sadly he’s not. In the consideration of there sons services they receive a ‘certain sum’ adding the most tension/suspense of all in the story leaving readers shocked as they know what’s coming, Mr. Whites lips are dry with the fear building up inside him as he asks the question he doesn’t even need to ask, â€Å"how much† The manner of speech in the story also creates a lot of tension, fear and suspense for the reader. For example there are parts in the story where there are quick, short dialogues between the characters. This helps to create a lot of tension as not only is the scene tense but also the quick dialogues helps to build up tension of that particular scene. These short quick dialogues help the text to keep flowing making the scene more chaotic and tense. Also during such conversations Jacob has intelligently used simple English, so the reader can digest the text and keep up with the fast pace of the conversation. The best example of such a scene is the conversation between Mr. White and Mrs. White after their son is dead and she wants him to use the paw to bring their son back to life. â€Å"The paw!† â€Å"The Monkey’s paw† â€Å"Where? Where is it? What’s the matter?† â€Å"I want it†

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Corporate University in China Essay

The concept of corporate university (CU) in China is a recent phenomenon although it existed more than eight decades in the western world. Literature reviews indicate that CU is an independent professional-managed entity proactively providing learning intervention in the workplace. With the ownership of the corporation, CU embedded culture and optimized learning through commitment to strategic intent in order to meet organizational objectives. The concept of â€Å"training† has to be redefined. The major key role of CU is to facilitate both individuals and organization to become â€Å"efficient learner† in order to maintain competitiveness in the ever-changing of business environment. Since the start of economic reform in 1978, the Chinese economy has enjoyed a dramatic growth. In 2002 alone, China attracted over US$52.7 billion in foreign direct investment (FDI), surpassing the US. The drastic economic growth and the fundamental structural change in China as a result of government policies, globalization and technological advances will continue to drive the demand for training and competency development. Both local and foreign-invested corporations seek the CU concept as the strategic solution. There are many reasons for corporations establish CU; however, the primary one is to facilitate corporate objectives and support business strategies. Studies on HRM suggest different models vary across different countries. A direct copy from western model might cause ineffective and inefficient. A comprehensive understanding on the CU meaning, how it operates, and its roles are important. In addition, consideration of local elements is necessary in adopting CU in China. Major Chinese characteristics with current corporate situation and issues should be identified. Evidences support that the Chinese contextual variables and their CU motives impact the strategies and development of CU in China. Adapted from Prince & Beaver’s conceptual CU Wheel model, a priori China CU framework encompassed the unique characteristics of China is formulated in an attempt to describe the key functions that an â€Å"ideal† type of CU in China should perform. Based on the theoretical assumptions, the four core subsystems include learning and teaching process, networks and partnership, accreditation system, and marketing process constitute the main elements of the CU process. They work collaboratively with the common goal of supporting business goals and strategies. The two cultural elements, â€Å"guanxi† and â€Å"mianzi†, work as catalyst or lubricator to enhance the effectiveness and coordination. The priori CU framework brings new insight to the CU development in China. Research is performed to test the relevance of this framework across the three major forms of ownership. To achieve the research objectives, an exploratory and descriptive approach is used. This study adopts a qualitative case-methodology based on the in-depth interviews, previously collected data through questionnaires and documentary analysis. The three study cases include: 1. Taikang Business University (TBU) – a joint-venture enterprise with foreign investment; 2. Motorola University, China (MUC) – a wholly foreign-owned multi-national corporation (MNC); 3. X Academy, a state-owned enterprise (SOE) To delimit the study, each case covers background information, its objectives and roles, core portfolio, and the relevance of the priori framework. Challenges and issues of each case organization are addressed as well. A cross-case analysis of the three case organizations is used to identify the similarities and differences. The diffusion of CU practices varies with the investment form and the foreign equity stake. The study provides evident that both the MNC and joint venture case organizations with foreign investment are more mature in their CU process. The integration and coordination of the four core processes that constitute the priori CU framework are strongly evident. A hybrid model of CU practices is adopted with the convergence of practices from the parent country operation and the divergence of practices for the China context. On the other hand, the CU development of the SOE case is less developed. It can be explained that most of SOEs in China lack western management know-how and resources. Some CU sub-processes or practices of the priori CU framework are either missing or too weak in the SOE case. It has been facing problems at the CU evolution. Misconception on training, lack of support from upper management, lack of CU understanding, unable to demonstrate the CU value, ineffective learning process, and the cultural gap are the major issues and challenges for CUs in China. Improvements have to be made before CU can really take off in organizations in China. Recommendations with reference to the priori CU framework are made. Additional comments on CU strategies are given for local enterprises and the foreign-invested organization. It is evident that some CUs such as Motorola University China (MUC) perform a range of strategic functions in China. Among all, it can be summarized into two major categories: developing people and developing business. Although developing people is the most common motive for the CU establishment, the CU strategic orientation towards market-driven and profit-driven is more evident and justifiable to most Chinese enterprises. The CU strategies and practices are highly influenced by the political, economic and cultural characteristics of China. It would be difficult to apply a single CU model to all CU phenomena. Despite the limitation, the priori CU framework can still be used as a tool to describe the current situation in the CU scene in China. It encompasses the unique characteristics of China CU, capable of providing the direction to the CU operations and practices. This research raises a number of issues upon which subsequent research efforts can be expended as follow: 1. Besides the forms of ownership, other company variables such as the industry types, leadership style, corporation sizes, and corporate culture might affect the CU development and practices. Further, the CU strategies and practices are highly influenced by the political, economic and cultural characteristics of China. To what extent these contextual variables influence the CU adoption in China? 2. The major motive for local enterprises to establish CU is to drive corporate-wide initiative, reinforcing and perpetuating behavior towards internationalization. So how do the local corporations, particularly state-owned enterprise, change their traditional view to more global perspective in order to run a successful CU? 3. Different foreign-invested corporations adopt different local strategy. Some focus on globalizing the China operation whilst others prefer to adopt a complete localization approach. Does the local strategy adopted by the foreign-invested corporation affect the CU strategy and development? 4. The dynamic business environment in China creates a constant change phenomenon in corporate strategies. How does CU support the changing corporate strategies and maintain its agility? How does CU demonstrate its value in China? With a large population, fast and rapid growing economy and constant improvement of its people’s living standard, corporations in China enjoy tremendous market potentials. CU definitely has an important role in China. However, a successful CU requires continuously learning and self-reflective. The evolution of CU involves ongoing values, trust, respect, commitment, integrity and enthusiasm. The priori CU framework, to a certain extent, can be used as a tool to explain the current situation in the CU scene in China. With more understanding on the CU practices and development in China, it will benefit both organization decision makers and educational providers to evaluate their responses to what is clearly a growing phenomenon.